The Families of Mushrooms and Toadstools Represented in the British Isles


L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


Anamorphic forms occurring.

Morphology. The fruit-bodies producing asci and ascospores; cupulate; clustered, or solitary; stipitate (often quite long-stalked), or sessile; tiny to small; in Ciboria batschiana, 0.5–1 cm across; not brightly pigmented; light brown, or dark brown (i.e., usually some shade of brown); apothecial; producing asci and spores on an exposed hymenium; ascus-bearing hymenial layer cupular; without carotenoid pigmentation; stromata present (as sclerotia, or as mummified host tissue). The asci usually with more or less conspicuous apical thickening (this I+). The ascospores usually ellipsoid; pale brown, or white; simple.

The hyphae without clamp connections. The hyphal walls lamellate, double layered, with both layers electron dense.

Ecology. Parasitic, or saprophytic. On various plant parts, especially seeds and fruits.

British representation. About 70 species in Britain; about 17 genera.

World representation. About 225 species; genera about 35. Cosmopolitan.

Classification. Ascomycota; Ascomycetes; Leotiomycetidae; Helotiales.

Illustrations. • Ciboria batschiana (LH).

To view the illustrations with captions giving names in current use, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, source references, and other relevant material.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2008 onwards. The families of mushrooms and toadstools represented in the British Isles. Version: 6th March 2015.’.