The Families of Mushrooms and Toadstools Represented in the British Isles


L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz



Morphology. The fruit-bodies producing basidia and basidiospores; persistent; flattened and more or less appressed to the substrate or encrusting, with the hymenium on the outside; brightly pigmented, or not brightly pigmented; pale or brown, sometimes blue (e.g., Terana caerulea). The hymenium porose, or with pegs or spinose, or irregularly folded, ridged or wrinkled. The hymenial layer not readily separable from the supporting flesh. The hymenium thickening. Cystidia present; leptocystidia. The basidia ‘unmodified’. The basidiospores hyaline; smooth; inamyloid.

The hyphae without clamp connections. The hyphal walls lamellate, with a thin, electron-dense outer layer and a relatively thick, electron-transparent inner layer. The hyphae monomitic.

Ecology. The fruit-bodies on dead wood, or on living wood (?); on trunks and branches of living trees, or on dead trees and fallen logs (and on bark).

British representation. 31 species in Britain; Candelabrochaete, Ceraceomyces, Erythricium, Hyphodermella, Odonticium, Phanerochaete, Phlebiopsis, Terana.

World representation. 63 species (?). “Widespread”.

Classification. Basidiomycota; Basidiomycetes; Agaricomycetidae; Polyporales.

Illustrations. • Terana caerulea (Cobalt crust, on rose stem): A. Myers. • Phanerochaete filamentosa and Terana caerulea: T. Læssøe.

To view the illustrations with captions giving names in current use, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, source references, and other relevant material.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2008 onwards. The families of mushrooms and toadstools represented in the British Isles. Version: 6th March 2015.’.