The Families of Mushrooms and Toadstools Represented in the British Isles


L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


Morphology. The fruit-bodies producing basidia and basidiospores; persistent; flattened and more or less appressed to the substrate or encrusting, with the hymenium on the outside (resupinate to effuso-reflexed, waxy to crustose); of indeterminate dimensions. The hymenium smooth (but then papillate), or irregularly folded, ridged or wrinkled; not thickening. Cystidia (hymenial) present; gloeocystidia (or metuloids, lycocystidia absent). The basidia ‘unmodified’; not of the ceratobasidialean type (q.v.). The basidiospores ballistosporic; white, or pink (generating a pinkish spore print); smooth; inamyloid.

The hyphal walls lamellate, with a thin, electron-dense outer layer and a relatively thick, electron-transparent inner layer. The hyphae monomitic. The generative hyphae not inflated.

British representation. About 25 species in Britain; Peniophora.

World representation. 81 species; genera 4. “Widespread”.

Classification. Basidiomycota; Basidiomycetes; Agaricomycetidae; Russulales (formerly Stereales).

Illustrations. • Peniophora quercina (LH).

To view the illustrations with captions giving names in current use, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, source references, and other relevant material.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2008 onwards. The families of mushrooms and toadstools represented in the British Isles. Version: 6th March 2015.’.