The Families of Mushrooms and Toadstools Represented in the British Isles


L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


Syn. Tripterosporaceae.

Anamorphic forms occurring (rarely prominent).

Morphology. The fruit-bodies producing asci and ascospores; cupulate, or pear-shaped, or globose (? - “ostiolate or not”, dark, often thick walled, often hairy or ornamented); “dark”; perithecial, or cleistothecial; stromata absent (rarely with a basal subiculum). The asci cylindrical-clavate to clavate; with more or less conspicuous apical thickening (usually with a small apical j- ring); thin walled (not fissitunicate, rarely evanescent). The walls of the asci not staining blue with iodine. The ascospores smooth, or ornamented (occasionally); usually hyaline and brown (with at least one dark brown and one hyaline cell); septate; appendaged (with gelatinous appendages or caudae); without a mucilaginous sheath.

The hyphae without clamp connections. The hyphal walls lamellate, double layered, with both layers electron dense.

Ecology. The fruit-bodies on dead wood. Found in coniferous woodland, in broad-leaved woodland, and in mixed woodland.

British representation. Anopodium, Apiosordaria, Arnium, Bombardia, Bombardioidea, Bovilla, Cercophora, Hormospora, Jugulospora, Lasiosordaria, Lasiosphaeria, Malinvernia, Philocopra, Pleurage, Podospora, Schizothecium, Strattonia, Thaxteria, Tripterospora, Zopfiella, Zygospermella, Zygospermum.

World representation. 148 species; genera 33. “Widespread”.

Classification. Ascomycota; Ascomycetes; Sordariomycetidae; Sordariales.

Comments. Interascal tissue of thin-walled paraphyses often present, but inconspicuous and usually evanescent.

Illustrations. • Bombardia bombarda (Berkeley).

To view the illustrations with captions giving names in current use, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, source references, and other relevant material.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2008 onwards. The families of mushrooms and toadstools represented in the British Isles. Version: 6th March 2015.’.