The Families of Mushrooms and Toadstools Represented in the British Isles


L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


Morphology. The fruit-bodies producing basidia and basidiospores; simple, or compound; erect, differentiated into a stipe and pileus with the hymenium underneath the latter, or branched (pileate or ramarioid). The hymenium ribbed, or smooth. Hyphidia represented by dichohyphidia (often). The basidia ‘unmodified’.

The hyphae with clamp connections. The hyphal walls lamellate, with a thin, electron-dense outer layer and a relatively thick, electron-transparent inner layer.

Chemical reactions. The context hyphae xanthochroic.

British representation. 9 species in Britain; Asterostroma, Dichostereum, Scytinostroma, Vararia.

World representation. 115 species; genera 7. “Widespread”.

Classification. Basidiomycota; Basidiomycetes; Agaricomycetidae; Russulales.

Comments. Catahymenial (i.e., hyphidia being the first-formed hymenial elements, the basidia being embedded at various levels and reaching the surface by elongation, not forming a palisade), dichohyphae and/or dichohyphidia present, and setoid structures absent - these features contrasting with Hymenochaetaceae.

To view the illustrations with captions giving names in current use, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, source references, and other relevant material.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2008 onwards. The families of mushrooms and toadstools represented in the British Isles. Version: 6th March 2015.’.