The Families of Mushrooms and Toadstools Represented in the British Isles


L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


‘False Truffles’.

Including Hymenangiaceae.

Morphology. The fruit-bodies producing basidia and basidiospores; gymnocarpic; a globose or tuberiform gasterocarp (loculate); small; in Hymenogaster tener, 0.5–2 cm across; white or whitish (discolouring); reacting rapidly with a marked colour change when cut or bruised; damaged flesh turning brownish to turning red. The basidia ‘unmodified’. The basidiospores statismosporic; yellow-brown, or brown; smooth to ornamented (smooth to verruculose).

The hyphal walls lamellate, with a thin, electron-dense outer layer and a relatively thick, electron-transparent inner layer. The hyphae monomitic. The generative hyphae inflated.

Chemical reactions. Supposedly not yielding prenylated phenols and quinones.

Ecology. The fruit-bodies borne on the ground (in humus litter). Associated with broad-leaved trees. Often associated with oak. Found in coniferous woodland, in broad-leaved woodland, and in mixed woodland.

British representation. Hymenangium, Hymenogaster.

World representation. 126 species; genera 10. “Widespread”, especially temperate.

Classification. Basidiomycota; Basidiomycetes; Agaricomycetidae; Boletales.

Comments. The gasterocarp multiloculate, peridium and epicutis present.

Illustrations. • Hymenogaster tener (LH). • Hymenogaster citrinus (Berkeley).

To view the illustrations with captions giving names in current use, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, source references, and other relevant material.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2008 onwards. The families of mushrooms and toadstools represented in the British Isles. Version: 6th March 2015.’.