The Families of Mushrooms and Toadstools Represented in the British Isles


L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


~Rhizopogonaceae, Suillaceae.

Morphology. The fruit-bodies producing basidia and basidiospores; ephemeral; solitary; differentiated into a stipe and pileus with the hymenium underneath the latter (the stipe not ornamented); tiny to large; 0.2–10 cm across. The mature pileus convex, or more or less flat or somewhat depressed (when older). The fruit-bodies brightly pigmented, or not brightly pigmented. The top of the pileus reddish-brown, or dark brown, or red, or pink, or lilac (or greyish violet). The stipe bearing a ring but no volva, or with neither ring nor volva. The hymenium uniformly secondarily borne on gills. The hymenial layer readily separable from the supporting flesh. The hymenium thickening. The hymenophore decurrent. The hymenophoral trama bilateral. Cystidia present (cheilocystidia). The basidia ‘unmodified’. The basidiospores large, cylindrical-elongate; ballistosporic; yellow-brown to olive, or brown, or brown-black to blue-black (nearly black, in Gomphidius); smooth; without a germ pore.

The hyphae without clamp connections. The hyphal walls lamellate, with a thin, electron-dense outer layer and a relatively thick, electron-transparent inner layer. The hyphae monomitic. The generative hyphae inflated. Spaerocysts not occurring among the context hyphae.

Chemical reactions. Yielding prenylated phenols and quinones.

Ecology. Saprophytic and mycorrhizal (ectomycorrhizal). The fruit-bodies borne on the ground. Associated with conifers. Always associated with pines and with the ectomycorrhizae of Suillaceae and Rhizopogonaceae. Found in mixed woodland and in coniferous woodland.

British representation. 5 species in Britain; Chroogomphus, Gomphidius.

World representation. 27 species; genera 4. Widespread, especially north temperate.

Classification. Basidiomycota; Basidiomycetes; Agaricomycetidae; Boletales.

Illustrations. • Chroogomphus rutilus and Gomphidius glutinosus (LH). • Gomphideus roseus (LH). • Gomphidius gracilis (Berkeley).

To view the illustrations with captions giving names in current use, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, source references, and other relevant material.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2008 onwards. The families of mushrooms and toadstools represented in the British Isles. Version: 6th March 2015.’.