The Families of Mushrooms and Toadstools Represented in the British Isles


L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


‘Jelly Fungi’.

Morphology. The fruit-bodies producing basidia and basidiospores; simple, or compound; discoid, cup- or funnel-shaped with the hymenium on top (Exidia recisa being cup-like), or attached laterally and bracket-shaped, or more or less prostrate and cushion-shaped or contorted-folded and brain-like with the hymenium external, or erect-linear and unbranched, or erect-clavate and unbranched (i.e., sometimes clavarioid); small to large; 1–10 cm across; gelatinous and somewhat translucent when moist; not brightly pigmented (?); white or whitish to straw-coloured, or honey-coloured, or yellowish-brown to light brown, or blackish. The hymenium with pegs or spinose, or irregularly folded, ridged or wrinkled. The basidia ‘modified’; cruciately divided. The basidiospores ballistosporic.

The hyphal walls lamellate, with a thin, electron-dense outer layer and a relatively thick, electron-transparent inner layer. The hyphae with dolipore septa.

Ecology. Saprophytic. The fruit-bodies borne on the ground, or on dead wood (commonly, or in the case of Sebacina incrustans, encrusting grass).

British representation. Basidiodendron, Bourdotia, Ceratosebacina, Craterocolla, Cristella, Efibulobasidium, Eichleriella, Endoperplexa, Exidia, Exidiopsis, Guepinia, Gyrocephalus, Heterochaete , Heterochaetella, Hirneolina, Hydnogloea, Microsebacina, Myxarium, Phlogiotis, Protodontia, Protohydnum, Pseudohydnum, Pseudostypella, Sebacina, Serendipita, Soppittiella, Stypella, Tremellodon, Tremiscus, Ulocolla.

World representation. 194 species; genera 28. “Widespread”.

Classification. Basidiomycota; Basidiomycetes; Tremellomycetidae; Tremellales.

Comments. The haplophase mycelial, lacking a conidial state.

Illustrations. • Exidia albida, E. glandulosa, E. recisa, and Pseudohydnum gelatinosum (LH). • Sebacina incrustans (Berkeley).

To view the illustrations with captions giving names in current use, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, source references, and other relevant material.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2008 onwards. The families of mushrooms and toadstools represented in the British Isles. Version: 6th March 2015.’.