The Families of Mushrooms and Toadstools Represented in the British Isles


L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


Morphology. The fruit-bodies producing asci and ascospores; persistent; discoid; sessile; discrete, or coalescing; tiny (always?); perithecial (perithecia immersed in a well developed eu- or pseudo-stroma, often long-necked, the interascal tissue of cylindrical paraphyses); comprising a pre-formed stroma bearing perithecia in which asci, spores and paraphyses develop; stromata present (well developed). The asci long stalked, with a truncate apex; with more or less conspicuous apical thickening (with a small, often J+ apical ring); more or less thick walled. The walls of the asci not staining blue with iodine. The ascospores slightly curved; pale brown.

The hyphae without clamp connections. The hyphal walls lamellate, double layered, with both layers electron dense.

Ecology. Parasitic (often), or saprophytic; if parasitic, on vascular plants. The fruit-bodies on dead wood, or on living wood. Associated with broad-leaved trees. The fruit-bodies on trunks and branches of living trees and on dead trees and fallen logs. On branches of deciduous trees, especially beech, bursting through the bark. Found in broad-leaved woodland and in mixed woodland.

British representation. Anthostoma, Cladosphaeria, Cryptosphaeria, Cryptosphaerina, Diatrype, Diatrypella, Eutypa, Eutypella, Peroneutypa, Peroneutypella, Quaternaria, Scoptria.

World representation. 123 species; genera 8. “Widespread”.

Classification. Ascomycota; Ascomycetes; Sordariomycetidae; Xylariales.

Illustrations. • Diatrype verrucaeformis (Price).

To view the illustrations with captions giving names in current use, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, source references, and other relevant material.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2008 onwards. The families of mushrooms and toadstools represented in the British Isles. Version: 6th March 2015.’.