The Families of Mushrooms and Toadstools Represented in the British Isles


L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


‘Earth Tongues’.

Cf. Geoglossaceae?.

Morphology. The fruit-bodies producing asci and ascospores; erect-elongate, unbranched; capitate (the head more or less flattened, and wrikled or folded, the hymenium brown or yellow); stipitate; small to large; 2–8 cm high; brightly pigmented to not brightly pigmented; cream or yellowish and yellow, or straw-coloured and yellow (the head yellower than the stipe); apothecial; comprising a perithecioid structure enclosing asci and spores (and paraphyses), with no stroma; stromata absent. The asci cylindric-clavate; asci inoperculate; thin walled. The walls of the asci with a small J+ or J- pore. The ascospores elongate (fasciculate in the ascus); smooth; hyaline; multi- septate.

The hyphae without clamp connections. The hyphal walls lamellate, double layered, with both layers electron dense.

Ecology. Saprophytic (in soil). The fruit-bodies borne on the ground. Found in grassy places, or in coniferous woodland, or in broad-leaved woodland, or in mixed woodland.

British representation. Cudonia, Spathularia.

World representation. 10 species; genera 2. Temperate.

Classification. Ascomycota; Ascomycetes; Leotiomycetidae; Helotiales.

Comments. ‘Inoperculate Discomycete’; interascal tissue of narrow, branched paraphyses, which are curved towards the tip.

Illustrations. • Cudonia circinans and Spathularia flavida (LH). • Spathularia flavida (Berkeley).

To view the illustrations with captions giving names in current use, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, source references, and other relevant material.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2008 onwards. The families of mushrooms and toadstools represented in the British Isles. Version: 6th March 2015.’.