The Families of Mushrooms and Toadstools Represented in the British Isles


L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


‘Fairy Clubs’.

Morphology. The fruit-bodies producing basidia and basidiospores; simple, or compound; clustered (mostly), or solitary; clavarioid, erect-linear and unbranched, or erect-clavate and unbranched, or branched (without a distinct head); medium sized to large; 3–12 cm high; white or whitish and pink, or white or whitish and grey. The hymenium ribbed, or smooth. The basidia ‘unmodified’ (though with only two sterigmata); with only two (distal) sterigmata, these strongly curved. The basidiospores ballistosporic; hyaline; smooth; inamyloid.

The hyphal walls lamellate, with a thin, electron-dense outer layer and a relatively thick, electron-transparent inner layer. The hyphae monomitic. The generative hyphae inflated.

Ecology. Saprophytic. The fruit-bodies borne on the ground (humicolous). Found in grassy places, in coniferous woodland, in broad-leaved woodland, and in mixed woodland.

British representation. 7 species in Britain; Clavulicium, Clavulina, Membranomyces.

World representation. 38 species; genera 3. “Widespread”.

Classification. Basidiomycota; Basidiomycetes; Agaricomycetidae; Cantharellales.

Illustrations. • Clavulina coralloides and Clavulina rugosa (LH). • Clavulina rugosa (Berkeley).

To view the illustrations with captions giving names in current use, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, source references, and other relevant material.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2008 onwards. The families of mushrooms and toadstools represented in the British Isles. Version: 6th March 2015.’.