The Families of Mushrooms and Toadstools Represented in the British Isles

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L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz

Character List

#1. <Common names of family members>/

#2. <Nomenclature>/

#3. Anamorphic forms <‘Fungi Imperfecti’, whether represented in the family>/

1. occurring <in the family>/

2. not known <in the family>/

Anamorphic: of fungi (anamorphs, Fungi Imperfecti) disseminated by propagules (mainly ‘conidia’) that are not derived via sexual reproduction and meiosis. Numerous anamorphs described as distinct genera and species have now been conclusively linked with “normal”, sexually reproducing (i.e., teleomorphic) ascomycetes and basidiomycetes, and the life cycles of many fungi, including some common mushrooms and toadstools, have been conclusively shown to include both anamorphic and teleomorphic phases. However, many anamorphic fungi have yet to be linked with a teleomorphic phase. The task of assigning these to their teleomorphic counterparts is proceeding apace, with deductions from morphological and ultrastructural evidence now being confirmed and extended by comparative DNA sequencing. It seems likely, however, that some anamorphs have lost sexuality altogether; in which case, they must be evolving independently of their teleomorphic ancestors.

Morphology

#4. The fruit-bodies <type, asco- or basidiomycete>/

1. producing asci and ascospores <ascomycete>/

2. producing basidia and basidiospores <basidiomycete>/

3. producing deciduous propagules, each comprising a tetrad of cells with thick walls, this developing from the probasidium and circumventing development of basidium and basidiospores <rare aberrant basidiomycete>/

4. not developing asci, probasidia or basidia <thalloid anamorph or zygomycete>/

#5. The fruit-bodies <persistence>/

1. ephemeral <relatively soft and soon putrescent>/

2. persistent <and relatively tough>/

#6. The fruit-bodies <simple or compound>/

1. simple/

2. compound/

#7. The <mature> fruit-bodies <general form - ascoma or basidioma>/

1. comprising a stipitate pileus, with gills beneath/

2. with stipe and cap or head, but without gills/

3. cup-shaped or funnel-shaped, without gills <stipitate or not>/

4. bracket-shaped <attached laterally, usually with hymenium underneath>/

5. appressed to the substrate <resupinate, encrusting, discoid, cushion shaped, or contorted-folded and brain-like>/

6. unbranched and more or less clavate, spathulate, linear or vermicular/

7. branched with elongate branches <these linear, more or less clavate, vermicular, or flattened; sometimes coralloid>/

8. globose, tuberous, pustulate, pear-shaped or star-shaped/

This is an improved version of the six main divisions at the start of the Lange and Hora (1967) key, temporarily included here as an aid to identification. It is unsatisfactory even for this purpose, and even the modified version of state 5 is useless for generating descriptions.

Ascoma (ascocarp): an ascus-containing structure. In Ascomycota, this is not necessarily equivalent to the conspicuous fruit body, which may represent a stroma (q.v.). E.g., see Xylariaceae.

Basidioma (basidiocarp, carpophore, hymenophore, sporophore): a basidium-producing organ. (Pseudo-)scientific name, and synonyms, for the fruit body of Basidiomycota.

Hymenium: the spore-producing layer of a fruit body.

Cystidia: sterile bodies, often of distinctive and taxonomically useful shapes, occurring at any surface of a basidiomycete fruit body; particularly in the hymenium, from which they often project. Hence (e.g.) ‘leptocystida’ (smooth and thin walled; ‘lamprocystidia’ (thick walled); macrocystidia (arising deep in the trama of lactarioid russules; gloeocystidia (thin walled, usually irregular, the contents hyaline or yellowish and highly refractile; skeletocystidia (the apical parts of skeletal hyphae (q.v.) when these project into or through the hymenium).

Paraphysis: a sterile, upward growing, basally attached hyphal element in a hymenium; especially in ascomycetes, where they are usually filiform (branched or unbranched), with their free ends often making an ‘epithecium’ over the asci. Apical paraphyses, however, are downward growing hyphae with free tips found in the ascomata of Hypocreales.

Pileus (adj. pileate): the cap of a fruit body. In agaricoids and other non-resupinate Basidiomycetes (i.e., those exhibiting a stipe, q.v.), the hymenium-bearing part of the fruit body.

Reflexed: of a flattened fruit body which turns back at the edges to expose the hymenium, the latter being on the lower surface. Contrast with resupinate (q.v.).

Resupinate: of a fruit body lying flat on the substrate, bearing the hymenium on the outer (exposed) surface.

Ring, annulus: of Basidiomata. An encircling remnant of the partial veil, or part of it, observed on a stipe after expansion of the pileus (q.v.). ‘Superior’ when near the top of the stipe, ‘inferior’ when lower down.

Stipe (adj. stipitate): the stalk of a fruit body.

Trama: the layer of hyphae in the central part of the lammella of an agaric, of a spine of Hydnaceae, or between the pores of a polypore.

Volva: a cup-like remnant of the lower part of the universal veil (q.v.), sheathing the base of the stipe of many agarics and gasteromycetes.

#8. The fruit-bodies <of Ascomycota, form>/

1. flat-irregular <including effuse>/

2. discoid/

3. cupulate/

4. funnel-shaped/

5. cushion-shaped <pulvinate>/

6. pear-shaped/

7. tuberous/

8. globose/

9. erect-elongate, unbranched/

10. erect-branching/

#9. The <erect-elongate> fruit-bodies <of Ascomycota, shape>/

1. linear/

2. ligulate/

3. clavate/

4. capitate/

#10. The fruit-bodies <solitary or clustered>/

1. <commonly> clustered/

2. <mostly> solitary/

#11. The fruit-bodies <whether stipitate: mainly applied to Ascomycota>/

1. stipitate/

2. sessile/

#12. The fruit-bodies <of Ascomycota, whether coalescing>/

1. discrete/

2. coalescing/

#13. The fruit-bodies <whether sparassidioid>/

1. sparassidioid (more or less globose, 25–35 cm across and multiply rosetted with pale yellowish tan, flattened and lobed branches) <Sparassis>/

2. not sparassidioid (q.v.)/

#14. The fruit-bodies <whether maturing spores are enclosed or exposed to the air>/

1. angiocarpic <the spores maturing while enclosed within the fruit-body: gasteromycetes>/

2. gymnocarpic <the spores maturing while exposed to the air>/

Angiocarpic: the spores maturing while enclosed in the fruit-body (characterizing the “gasteromycetes”). Contrast with the gymnocarpic condition, in which the maturing spores are exposed.

#15. The <mature> fruit-bodies <basidioma of Basidiomycota, form>/

1. differentiated into a <more or less distinct> stipe and pileus with the hymenium <spore-bearing surface> underneath the latter/

2. discoid, cup- or funnel-shaped with the hymenium on top <sessile to slightly stipitate>/

3. attached laterally and bracket-shaped <usually with the hymenium underneath, somewhat stipitate or not>/

4. fan-shaped <flabellate>/

5. more or less prostrate and cushion-shaped or contorted-folded and brain-like with the hymenium external/

6. flattened and more or less appressed to the substrate or encrusting, with the hymenium on the outside <“resupinate”; usually crustaceous or leathery>/

7. a globose or tuberiform gasterocarp <the spores maturing internally>/

8. comprising a 1–2 cm. diameter head with a small, terminal pore, borne at ground level, atop a long, fibrillose, subterranean stipe <i.e., a small puff-ball on an underground stalk: Tulostomataceae>/

9. finally emerging from an “egg” (the volva) in the form of a stout, clavate structure bearing the mature spores on its slimy, strongly foetid, swollen apex (e.g., Phallus spp.), as a foetid, spherical, lattice (e.g., Ileodictyon), or as a foetid bunch of separate “tongues” (e.g., Clathrus)/

10. star-like in appearance, with a central puff-ball surrounded by arms representing symmetrical splitting and outward peeling off of its outer coat/

11. maturing to form a tiny cup, with a cover of velvety tissue which disintegrates to reveal a “nest” full of little, spring-loaded “eggs”, the latter being dispersed full of spores <Nidulariaceae>/

12. erect-linear and unbranched <with all but the base covered with hymenium>/

13. erect-clavate and unbranched <with all but the base covered with hymenium>/

14. spathulate/

15. branched <or dendroid, often coralloid, often with all but the base covered with hymenium>/

16. pustulate <coalescing or not>/

Ascoma (ascocarp): an ascus-producing structure. In Ascomycota, this is not necessarily equivalent to the conspicuous fruit body, which may represent a stroma (q.v.). E.g., see Xylariaceae.

Basidioma (basidiocarp, carpophore, hymenophore, sporophore): a basidium-producing organ. (Pseudo-)scientific name, and synonyms, for the fruit body of Basidiomycota.

Hymenium: the spore-producing layer of a fruit body.

Cystidia: sterile bodies, often of distinctive and taxonomically useful shapes, occurring at any surface of a basidiomycete fruit body; particularly in the hymenium, from which they often project. Hence (e.g.) ‘leptocystida’ (smooth and thin walled; ‘lamprocystidia’ (thick walled); macrocystidia (arising deep in the trama of lactarioid russules; gloeocystidia (thin walled, usually irregular, the contents hyaline or yellowish and highly refractile; skeletocystidia (the apical parts of skeletal hyphae (q.v.) when these project into or through the hymenium).

Paraphysis: a sterile, upward growing, basally attached hyphal element in a hymenium; especially in ascomycetes, where they are usually filiform (branched or unbranched), with their free ends often making an ‘epithecium’ over the asci. Apical paraphyses, however, are downward growing hyphae with free tips found in the ascomata of Hypocreales.

Ring, annulus: of Basidiomata. An encircling remnant of the partial veil, or part of it, observed on a stipe after expansion of the pileus (q.v.). ‘Superior’ when near the top of the stipe, ‘inferior’ when lower down.

Trama: the layer of hyphae in the central part of the lammella of an agaric, of a spine of Hydnaceae, or between the pores of a polypore.

Volva: a cup-like remnant of the lower part of the universal veil (q.v.), sheathing the base of the stipe of many agarics and gasteromycetes.

#16. The <mature> fruit-bodies <size of ascoma or basidioma, in the largest dimension>/

1. tiny <less than 5 mm>/

2. small <5mm to 2.5 cm>/

3. medium sized <2.5–6 cm>/

4. large <6–15 cm>/

5. very large <more than 15 cm>/

#17. The fruit-bodies <width or diameter>/

cm across/

#18. The fruit-bodies <height>/

cm high/

#19. The mature pileus <cap, concave or convex>/

1. convex/

2. parasol-shaped/

3. more or less flat or somewhat depressed/

4. concave/

#20. The fruit-bodies <whether gelatinous when wet>/

1. gelatinous and somewhat translucent when moist <but tough and rubbery or bone-hard when dry: mostly Tremellales>/

2. not noticeably gelatinous <and remaining opaque> when moist <implicit>/

#21. The fruit-bodies <fresh and mature, whether brightly coloured externally>/

1. brightly pigmented <externally, at least in part>/

2. not brightly pigmented <externally; i.e., whitish, buff, brown, grey, fuscous, etc.>/

#22. The fruit-bodies <external colour>/

1. white or whitish/

2. cream or yellowish/

3. buff/

4. straw-coloured/

5. honey-coloured/

6. yellowish-brown <ochre>/

7. light brown/

8. reddish-brown/

9. purplish brown/

10. dark brown/

11. olive/

12. orange/

13. yellow/

14. green/

15. blue/

16. lilac/

17. pink/

18. purple/

19. red/

20. grey/

21. blackish/

#23. Mature flesh <of fruit bodies, colour> when fresh/

#24. The fruit-bodies <whether flesh resembles red meat>/

1. characterized by flesh textured and coloured like fresh beefsteak <Fistulina>/

2. with flesh not beef-steak like (i.e., unlike that of Fistulina) <implicit>/

#25. The top of the pileus <whether patterned>/

1. conspicuously patterned with scales/

2. not patterned with scales <and more or less concolorous>/

#26. The top of the pileus <colour(s)>/

1. white or whitish/

2. cream or yellowish/

3. buff/

4. straw-coloured/

5. honey-coloured/

6. yellowish-brown <ochre>/

7. light brown/

8. reddish-brown/

9. purplish brown/

10. dark brown/

11. olive/

12. orange/

13. yellow/

14. green/

15. blue/

16. lilac/

17. pink/

18. purple/

19. red/

20. grey/

21. blackish/

#27. The upper <non-hymenial> surface <of polypores etc., colour>/

1. white or whitish/

2. cream or yellowish/

3. buff/

4. straw-coloured/

5. honey-coloured/

6. yellowish-brown <ochre>/

7. reddish-brown/

8. light brown/

9. dark brown/

10. orange/

11. olive/

12. yellow/

13. green/

14. blue/

15. lilac/

16. pink/

17. purple/

18. red/

19. grey/

20. blackish/

21. purplish brown/

#28. The fruit-bodies <whether laticiferous>/

1. yielding <watery, white, or coloured> latex when cut/

2. not laticiferous <implicit>/

#29. The fruit-bodies <whether showing marked colour change when cut or bruised>/

1. reacting rapidly with a marked colour change when cut or bruised/

2. showing no conspicuous colour reaction to cutting or bruising <implicit>/

#30. The damaged flesh <colour in reaction to damage>/

1. turning brownish/

2. turning red/

3. yellowing/

4. greening/

5. turning blue/

6. turning blackish-blue/

7. blackening/

#31. The hymenium <whether auto-digesting>/

1. undergoing auto-digestion at maturity, with conspicuous liquefaction and darkening/

2. not auto-digesting <implicit>/

#32. The fruit-bodies <characteristic odour>/

1. stinking foetid-foecal when mature/

2. cocoa-scented/

3. garlic-scented/

4. smelling of aniseed/

5. with a mealy smell, with or without rancid overtones/

6. with an earthy, “spermatic” smell/

7. smelling of radish/

8. with a faintly sweetish or pleasant aroma/

9. smelling of cucumber/

10. with a goat-like aroma/

11. smelling of curry-powder/

12. coumarin-scented <like new-mown hay>/

13. with no particular odour other than an ordinary fungoid one <unreliably implicit>/

#33. The <mature> fruit-bodies <ascoma of Ascomycota: apothecial or cleistothecial>/

1. apothecial <cup-like, saucer-like, or everted-club-shaped, the hymenium and asci exposed>/

2. perithecial <with the hymenia and asci enclosed in sub-globose or flask-like ‘perithecia’, the latter releasing ascospores through a terminal pore>/

3. cleistothecial <closed, enclosing the hymenium and asci, with no pre-determined opening>/

Perithecium: a flask-shaped structure containing the asci, opening by an apical pore. Characteristic of the ‘Pyrenomycete’ assemblage of Ascomycota.

#34. The fruit-bodies <ascoma of Ascomycota, general type according to location of the asci. See Notes>/

1. producing asci and spores on an exposed hymenium <e.g., ‘discomycetes’ and derivatives>/

2. comprising a perithecioid structure enclosing asci and spores (and paraphyses), with no stroma/

3. comprising a pre-formed stroma bearing perithecia in which asci, spores and paraphyses develop <Pyrenomycetes>/

4. tuberous or globose and subterranean, the asci and spores produced from an enclosed hymenium <e.g., truffles>/

Perithecium: a flask-shaped structure containing the asci, opening by an apical pore. Characteristic of the ‘Pyrenomycete’ assemblage of Ascomycota.

#35. The ascus-bearing hymenial layer <of apothecial and perithecial ascomata, form>/

1. cupular/

2. more or less flat <or effuse>/

3. everted/

#36. The stromata <of the Pyrenomycete fruit bodies, form>/

#37. The fruit-bodies <ascoma, whether with carotenoid pigments>/

1. brightly pigmented with carotenoids/

2. without carotenoid pigmentation/

#38. Stromata <of Ascomycota, presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

Stroma: a mass or matrix of vegetative hyphae (with or without tissue of host or substrate), in or on which spores or fruit bodies bearing spores are produced. Exhibited by many ascomycetes, especially Xylariales and anamorphs.

#39. The asci <of Ascomycota: shape>/

#40. Asci <operculate or not>/

1. operculate/

2. inoperculate/

Operculate: opening by an apical lid (operculum).

#41. The asci <presence of apical thickening>/

1. with more or less conspicuous apical thickening/

2. without obvious apical thickening/

#42. The asci <wall thickness, persistence>/

1. more or less thick walled/

2. thin walled/

#43. The walls of the asci <iodine staining, exclusive of an apical J+ ring>/

1. staining blue with iodine/

2. not staining blue with iodine/

#44. The ascospores <comments>/

#45. The ascospores <shape>/

1. globose/

2. ellipsoid/

3. elongate/

4. filiform/

#46. The ascospores <smooth or ornamented>/

1. smooth/

2. ornamented/

#47. The ascospores <colour>/

1. hyaline <colourless>/

2. white/

3. cream <yellowish>/

4. yellow/

5. pink/

6. yellow-brown/

7. olive <yellowish brown to yellowish green>/

8. rusty brown/

9. brown/

10. fuscous/

11. brown-black/

12. blue-black/

#48. The ascospores <septate or not>/

1. septate/

2. simple <non-septae>/

#49. The ascospores <number of nuclei>/

1. uninucleate/

2. tetranucleate/

3. multinucleate/

#50. The ascospores <whether appendaged>/

1. appendaged/

2. without appendages/

#51. The ascospores <with or without gelatinous sheath>/

1. with a mucilaginous sheath/

2. without a mucilaginous sheath/

#52. The gasterocarp <presence of columella>/

1. with a columella/

2. without a columella/

#53. Capilliteum <in gasteromycetes, presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

‘Capilliteum’: a mass of sterile, threadlike elements - tubes or fibres - among the spores in a gasterocarp.

#54. Gleba <colour> at first/

1. pale/

2. dark/

‘Gleba’: the sporing tissue in a gasterocarpic fruit body (mainly employed for those of gasteromycetes and hypogeous Pezizales).

#55. Gleba <whether mucilaginous>/

1. becoming mucilaginous and foetid/

2. not becoming mucilaginous, not foetid <implicit>/

#56. The peridium <whether dehiscing>/

1. dehiscent/

2. not dehiscent/

‘Peridium’: the wall or limiting membrane of a fruit body.

#57. The <dehiscent> peridium <manner of dehiscence>/

1. opening via an apical pore/

2. opening irregularly/

3. splitting radially to form stellate rays/

#58. The pileipellis <whether epithelial>/

1. forming a continuous <true> epithelium/

2. not forming continuous epithelium/

Pileipellis: the cellular cortical layers of the pileus of a Basidiomycete.

#59. The stipe <where applicable to Basidiomycota, presence of ring and/or volva>/

1. bearing a ring but no volva/

2. with a volva but no ring/

3. with both ring and volva/

4. with neither ring nor volva/

#60. The stipe <whether scaly>/

1. scaly/

2. without scales/

#61. The stipe <whether developing cavities>/

1. developing cavities at maturity/

2. not developing cavities <implicit>/

#62. The hymenium <of Basidiomycota, whether smooth or with pores, pegs, gills or ribs>/

1. borne on gills/

2. ribbed/

3. porose/

4. with pegs or spinose <or teeth: to be separated>/

5. smooth <i.e., not associated with gills, pores or pegs>/

6. irregularly folded, ridged or wrinkled/

#63. The gills <whether suggestive of representing modified pores or cupules>/

1. atypical, rather obviously representing laterally flattened and radially elongated pores or cupules/

2. conventional, not obviously suggestive of modified pores or cupules/

#64. The edges of the gills <whether split>/

1. split longitudinally (each split half-revolute in dry conditions) <Schizophyllum>/

2. not split longitudinally <implicit>/

#65. The hymenial layer <whether readily separable from the supporting body>/

1. readily separable from the supporting flesh/

2. not readily separable from the supporting flesh/

#66. The hymenium <whether thickening>/

1. thickening/

2. not thickening/

#67. The hymenophore <hymenial-bearing component of the basidioma, insertion>/

1. free/

2. adnexed/

3. adnate/

4. sinuate/

5. decurrent/

#68. The hymenophoral trama <whether bilateral>/

1. bilateral <the lateral strata divergent or convergent>/

2. not bilateral <regular to irregular>/

#69. Cystidia <any form, presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

#70. <Forms of cystidia represented>/

1. leptocystidia/

2. gloeocystidia/

3. chrysocystidia/

4. skeletocystidia/

5. lamprocystidia/

6. hyphocystidia/

7. lyocystidia/

#71. Hyphidia represented by <forms>/

1. dendrohyphidia/

2. dichohyphidia/

3. acanthohyphidia/

#72. The basidia <whether split split or septate>/

1. ‘modified’ <the metabasidium conspicuously split, furcate, or septate by primary septa: Tremellomycetidae>/

2. ‘unmodified’ <homobasideous - the metabasidium neither split nor septate by primary septa, though sometimes secondarily septate: Agaricomycetidae>/

#73. The basidia <nature of ‘modification’>/

1. transversely septate <Auriculariales>/

2. cruciately divided/

3. partially longitudinally quadripartite at the apex/

4. bifurcate, with only two stout sterigmata each bearing a spore <Dacrymycetales>/

5. retaining an apical tetrad of sessile basidiospores with no sterigmata/

#74. The basidia <whether pyriform with very stout sterigmata>/

1. of characteristic form, being pyriform with very stout sterigmata <Ceratobasidiales>/

2. not of the ceratobasidialean type (q.v.)/

#75. The basidia <number of sterigmata>/

1. with only two (distal) sterigmata, these strongly curved/

2. 4-sterigmate <the usual situation>/

3. 5–8 sterigmate/

4. 1-serigmate/

#76. The basidia <timing of maturation>/

1. maturing simultaneously/

2. maturing at different times/

#77. The basidiospores <comments>/

#78. The basidiospores <ballistosporic or statismosporic>/

1. ballistosporic/

2. statismosporic/

#79. The basidiospores <colour of the spore-print>/

1. hyaline <colourless>/

2. white/

3. cream <yellowish>/

4. yellow/

5. pink/

6. yellow-brown/

7. olive <yellowish brown to yellowish green>/

8. rusty brown/

9. brown/

10. fuscous/

11. brown-black/

12. blue-black/

#80. The basidiospores <smooth or ornamented>/

1. smooth/

2. ornamented/

#81. The basidiospores <presence of a germ pore>/

1. with a germ pore/

2. without a germ pore/

#82. The basidiospores <amyloid or not>/

1. amyloid <staining blue with iodine>/

2. inamyloid/

Amyloid: stained blue by iodine.

#83. The hyphae <with or without clamp connections>/

1. with clamp connections/

2. without clamp connections/

#84. The hyphal walls <ultrastructure: used to assign Anamorphic Fungi (=Fungi Imperfecti) to Ascomycota or Basidiomycota>/

1. lamellate, with a thin, electron-dense outer layer and a relatively thick, electron-transparent inner layer <Basidiomycota>/

2. lamellate, double layered, with both layers electron dense <Ascomycota>/

#85. The <dikaryotic basidiomycete> hyphae <presence of dolipore septa>/

1. with dolipore septa/

2. without dolipore septa/

#86. The hyphae <of the basidioma, analytical details>/

1. monomitic/

2. dimitic/

3. trimitic/

Re the anatomical structure of basidiomata, three main types of hyphal organization can be recognised.

1. Monomitic: having hyphae all of one kind, viz., ‘generative hyphae’, which are branched, septate, and of unlimited length. These give rise both to other hyphal types and to the hymenium.

2. Dimitic: having hyphae of two kinds, viz., generative hyphae (cf. above), and EITHER ‘skeletal (ligative) hyphae’, OR ‘binding hyphae’. Skeletal hyphae are of limited length, thick walled save at their apices, and aseptate. Binding hyphae are aseptate, thick walled and much branched, and serve to bind the others together.

3. Trimitic: having hyphae of all three kinds; viz., generative hyphae, skeletal hyphae, and binding hyphae.

#87. The generative hyphae <whether inflated>/

1. inflated/

2. not inflated/

#88. The context hyphae <branching pattern>/

1. exhibiting distinctive right-angled branching/

2. not exhibiting distinctive right-angled branching/

#89. The context hyphae <inflation at the septa>/

1. loosely arranged and inflated at the septa/

2. not inflated at the septa/

#90. Spaerocysts <presence or absence in the flesh of the fruit-body>/

1. present among the context hyphae, sometimes associated with latex/

2. not occurring among the context hyphae <though sometimes present in other parts, such as the veil>/

Chemical reactions

#91. The context hyphae <of basidiomycetes, whether xanthochroic>/

1. xanthochroic <context reddish- or yellowish-brown, darkening under treatment with KOH>/

2. not xanthochroic <dubiously implicit>/

‘Context’: the hyphal mass between the outer surface and the central parts of a fruiting body (basidiocarp).

#92. The context hyphae <of basidiomycetes, whether greening in alkali>/

1. releasing green pigment when treated with KOH <owing to the presence of thelephoric acid>/

2. not releasing green pigment when treated with KOH/

#93. The context hyphae <of basidiomycetes, reaction with ferric chloride>/

1. green positive to ferric chloride/

2. negative to ferric chloride/

#94. <Prenylated phenols and quinones: Boletales>/

1. yielding prenylated phenols and quinones/

2. not yielding prenylated phenols and quinones/

Ecology

#95. <Whether parasitic or saprophytic and/or mycorrhizal>/

1. parasitic/

2. saprophytic/

3. mycorrhizal/

#96. <When parasitic, hosts>/

1. on insects/

2. on other fungi/

3. on vascular plants/

4. on mosses/

#97. <Association with dung>/

1. coprophilous <associated with dung>/

2. keratinophilic <on decaying keratinous animal products>/

3. neither coprophilous nor particularly associated with decaying keratinous materials <implicit>/

#98. <Whether marine>/

1. marine/

2. non-marine <implicit>/

#99. The fruit-bodies <whether suberranean>/

1. subterranean <hypogeal, even when mature>/

2. not subterranean <implicit>/

#100. The fruit-bodies <general location>/

1. borne on the ground <terricolous: on soil, in grass, in humus, etc.>/

2. on dead wood <standing or fallen trees, timber, etc.>/

3. on living wood/

#101. Associated <with broad-leaved trees or conifers>/

1. with broad-leaved trees/

2. with conifers/

#102. The fruit-bodies <lignicolous forms, location>/

1. on trunks and branches of living trees/

2. on dead trees and fallen logs/

3. on stored and construction timber/

#103. <Ecological comments, plants with which particularly associated>/

#104. Found <situations>/

1. in grassy places/

2. in heathland/

3. in Sphagnum bogs/

4. in broad-leaved woodland/

5. in mixed woodland/

6. in coniferous woodland/

7. in places modified by human activities <e.g., roadsides, tips, parks, orchards, gardens>/

British and worldwide representation

#105. <Species number in Britain>/

species in Britain/

#106. <Genera in Britain:>/

#107. <General distribution in Britain:>/

1. northern Scotland/

2. southern Scotland/

3. northern England/

4. English Midlands/

5. East Anglia/

6. Wales/

7. southeast England/

8. central southern England/

9. southwest England <including Scilly>/

10. Isle of Wight/

11. Ireland/

#108. <Worldwide species number>/

species/

#109. Genera <number worldwide>/

#110. <World distribution>/

Classification

#111. <Phylum>/

1. Ascomycota/

2. Basidiomycota/

3. Zygomycota/

The classification is incompletely updated from Hawksworth et al. (in the 1995 edition of 'Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi'; this being the last edition to provide a classification accompanied by group descriptions and a key to families).

Ascomycota: characterized by sexual reproduction leading to production of (ephemeral) ascospores enclosed in an ascus.

Basidiomycota: characterized by sexual reproduction leading to the production of (ephemeral) basidiospores on the outside of a basidium.

Zygomycota: sexual reproduction via fusion of like gametangia, resulting in the production of resting zygospores.

Anamorphic fungi: forms lacking sexual reproduction, with dissemination via conidia or other asexually derived propagules.

#112. <Class of Ascomycota>/

1. Ascomycetes/

The classification is incompletely updated from Hawksworth et al. (in the 1995 edition of 'Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi'; this being the last edition to provide a classification accompanied by group descriptions and a key to families).

#113. <Class of Basidiomycota>/

1. Basidiomycetes/

2. Urediniomycetes/

#114. <Subclass of Ascomycota-Ascomycetes>/

1. Eurotiomycetidae/

2. Leotiomycetidae/

3. Pezizomycetidae/

4. Sordariomycetidae/

#115. <Subclass of Basidiomycota-Basidiomycetes>/

1. Agaricomycetidae <more or less = Homo(-holo)basidiomycetes, Hymenomycetidae: the metabasidium not divided by primary septa, though sometimes secondarily (adventitiously) septate>/

2. Tremellomycetidae <Heterobasidiomycetes, Phragmobasidiomycetidae: the metabasidium nearly always divided by primary septa, usually cruciate or horizontal>/

#116. <Subclass of Basidiomycota-Urediniomycetes>/

1. Urediniomycetes ‘incertis sedis’/

#117. <Order of Ascomycetes-Eurotiomycetidae>/

1. Elaphomycetales/

2. Onygenales/

#118. <Order of Ascomycetes-Leptiomycetidae>/

1. Helotiales/

#119. <Order of Ascomycetes-Pezizomycetidae>/

1. Pezizales/

#120. <Order of Ascomycetes-Sordariomycetidae>/

1. Hypocreales/

2. Sordariales/

3. Xylariales/

#121. <Order of Basidiomycetes-Agaricomycetidae>/

1. Agaricales/

2. Boletales/

3. Cantharellales <including a few Stereales>/

4. Hymenochaetales/

5. Phallales/

6. Polyporales <including most former Stereales>/

7. Russulales <including some former Stereales>/

8. Thelephorales/

#122. <Order of Basidiomycetes-Tremellomycetidae>/

1. Christianseniales/

2. Cystofilobasidiales/

3. Filobasidiales/

4. Tremellales/

5. Tulasnellales/

6. Auriculariales/

7. Ceratobasidiales/

8. Dacrymycetales/

Comments

#123. <Toxicity/edibility for humans>/

1. edible/

2. poisonous/

#124. <Comments>/


To view the illustrations with captions giving names in current use, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, source references, and other relevant material.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2008 onwards. The families of mushrooms and toadstools represented in the British Isles. Version: 6th March 2015. delta-intkey.com’.

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