The Families of Mushrooms and Toadstools Represented in the British Isles


L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


~ Leotiaceae.

Anamorphic forms occurring.

Morphology. The fruit-bodies producing asci and ascospores; in B. inquinans, discoid (large, with brown carbonaceous expitulum and black hymenium, 1–3(-4) cm in diameter); clustered; stipitate to sessile; discrete (but clustered); small to medium sized; (1–)3–4 cm across; gelatinous and somewhat translucent when moist; not brightly pigmented; blackish; apothecial; comprising a pre-formed stroma bearing perithecia in which asci, spores and paraphyses develop, or comprising a perithecioid structure enclosing asci and spores (and paraphyses), with no stroma; stromata present to absent (poorly developed, immersed). The asci with a complex apical J+ ring; asci inoperculate; thin walled. The walls of the asci with a J+ apical ring. The ascospores with a longitudinal germ slit; ellipsoid; smooth; dark brown, or brown-black; simple.

The hyphae without clamp connections. The hyphal walls lamellate, double layered, with both layers electron dense.

Ecology. Parasitic (sometimes), or saprophytic. The fruit-bodies on dead wood and on living wood (and on bark). Associated with broad-leaved trees. The fruit-bodies on trunks and branches of living trees and on dead trees and fallen logs. Mostly on oak or (less commonly) beech stumps. Found in broad-leaved woodland and in mixed woodland.

British representation. Bulgaria (including Phaeobulgaria).

World representation. 1 species; genera 1. North and south temperate.

Classification. Ascomycota; Ascomycetes; Leotiomycetidae; Helotiales.

Comments. ‘Inoperculate Discomycete’, with interascal tissue of simple paraphyses. Four of the eight spores in each ascus become lemon-shaped and dark brown and develop a germ slit.

Illustrations. • Bulgaria inquinans (LH). • Bulgaria inquinans (Berkeley).

To view the illustrations with captions giving names in current use, go to the interactive key. This also offers full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, source references, and other relevant material.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 2008 onwards. The families of mushrooms and toadstools represented in the British Isles. Version: 6th March 2015.’.