The families of flowering plants
~ Celastraceae, Flacourtiaceae
Habit and leaf form. Lianas (of combretaceous or malpighiaceous aspect, shortly ferrugineously stellate-pubescent); laticiferous. Climbing. Leaves opposite; membranous; simple. Lamina entire. Leaves exstipulate. Vernation conduplicate.
General anatomy. Plants with laticifers (the contents rubberlike). The laticifers in leaves and in stems.
Leaf anatomy. Hairs present. Complex hairs present; stellate (ferrugineous).
Stem anatomy. Vessels with vestured pits (the vestures rudimentary', Jansen et al. (2000)).
Reproductive type, pollination. Plants hermaphrodite.
Inflorescence, floral, fruit and seed morphology. Flowers aggregated in inflorescences; in umbels and in panicles. The ultimate inflorescence unit cymose. Inflorescences many-flowered, sub-umbelliform aggregates of thyrsiform groups. Flowers small; very fragrant; regular. Free hypanthium absent.
Perianth with distinct calyx and corolla; 6, or 8, or 10; 2 whorled; isomerous. Calyx (3–)4(–5); 1 whorled; gamosepalous (small, shortly united below); regular; open in bud. Corolla (3–)4(–5); 1 whorled; polypetalous; valvate (externally pubescent); regular (and revolute).
Androecium 30–100 (many). Androecial members maturing centrifugally; free of the perianth; free of one another; 2 whorled (biseriate). Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens. Stamens 30–100 (many); polystemonous; filantherous (the filaments filiform-subclavate). Anthers small, more or less horizontal; dehiscing transversely; four locular; tetrasporangiate. Endothecium developing fibrous thickenings. Anther epidermis persistent. Microsporogenesis simultaneous. The initial microspore tetrads tetrahedral. Anther wall initially with one middle layer; of the dicot type. Tapetum glandular (the cells becoming 24 nucleate). Pollen grains 3-celled.
Gynoecium 3 carpelled. Carpels reduced in number relative to the perianth. The pistil 3 celled. Gynoecium syncarpous; synstylovarious to eu-syncarpous; superior. Ovary 3 locular; sessile. Gynoecium stylate. Styles 1 (elongate, subulate); apical. Stigmas 3 (style slightly three-lobed). Placentation basal to axile. Ovules 2 per locule; ascending; collateral; anatropous; bitegmic (inner and outer integuments 3 and 4 cells thick, respectively); weakly crassinucellate (parietal tissue one-layered). Outer integument contributing to the micropyle. Endothelium differentiated (nucellar tissue disintegrating early). Embryo-sac development Polygonum-type. Antipodal cells formed; proliferating (to 1520 cells); ephemeral. Synergids pear-shaped. Hypostase absent.
Fruit non-fleshy; dehiscent; a capsule (turbinate). Capsules finally septicidal (with three apical, spathulate wings). Micropyle zigzag.
Geography, cytology. Paleotropical. Tropical. Burma.
Taxonomy. Subclass Dicotyledonae; Crassinucelli. Dahlgrens Superorder Malviflorae; Malvales. Cronquists Subclass Dilleniidae; Violales. APG 3 core angiosperms; core eudicot; Superorder Rosanae; fabid; Order Malpighiales (as a synonym of Celastraceae).
Species 1. Genera 1; only genus, Plagiopteron.
General remarks. This description is rather inadequate, but see Ya Tang (1994) for embryology.
This description is offered for casual browsing only. We strongly advise against extracting comparative information from it. This is much more easily achieved using the interactive key, which allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, geographical distribution, genera included in each family, and classifications (Dahlgren; Dahlgren, Clifford, and Yeo; Cronquist; APG).
Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onwards. The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. Version: 19th December 2012. http://delta-intkey.com’.