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The families of flowering plants

L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz

Leguminosae-Papilionoideae DC.

Alternatively Fabaceae Lindl. (ambiguous nom altern.), Papilionaceae Giseke; ~ Leguminosae.

Including Hedysareae (Hedysaraceae) J.G Agardh, Lathyraceae Burnett, Lotaceae Burnett, Phaseolaceae Ponce de Léon & Alvares, Robiniaceas (Robiniaceae) Welw., Swartzieae (Swartziaceae) Bartl.

Habit and leaf form. Trees, or shrubs, or herbs, or lianas; resinous, or not resinous. ‘Normal’ plants, or switch-plants; the switch forms often with the principal photosynthesizing function transferred to stems, or phyllodineous. Leaves well developed (usually), or much reduced (not infrequently). The herbs annual, or biennial, or perennial; without conspicuous aggregations of leaves. Self supporting, or epiphytic, or climbing; the climbers stem twiners, or tendril climbers (via stem or leaf tendrils), or scrambling (then sometimes via hooks); the twiners twining clockwise, or twining anticlockwise (in Phaseolus, Wisteria). Helophytic, or mesophytic, or xerophytic. Heterophyllous, or not heterophyllous. Leaves evergreen, or deciduous; minute to very large; alternate (usually), or opposite to whorled (e.g. some Mirbelieae); spiral, or distichous; ‘herbaceous’, or leathery, or membranous, or modified into spines; petiolate to sessile; non-sheathing; gland-dotted, or not gland-dotted; aromatic (occasionally, e.g. Cajanus), or without marked odour (mostly); borne edgewise to the stem (commonly when phyllodineous, especially in Australia), or ‘normally orientated’; compound (commonly), or simple (or only ostensibly so); pulvinate, or epulvinate (the distinction being indicative of a major taxonomic distinction); when compound, as is usual, unifoliolate, or ternate, or pinnate (commonly, either pari- or imparipinnate), or palmate, or bifoliolate. Leaflets pulvinate, or epulvinate. Leaves stipulate (nearly always), or exstipulate (e.g., switch plants and some non-switch Mirbelieae). Stipules intrapetiolar; free of one another, or concrescent (or more often adnate to the petiole); scaly, or leafy, or spiny, or represented by glands; caducous, or persistent. Leaf development not ‘graminaceous’.

Leaf anatomy. The leaf lamina dorsiventral, or bifacial, or centric. Mucilaginous epidermis present, or absent. Stomata anomocytic, or paracytic, or anisocytic, or tetracytic, or cyclocytic. Hairs of numerous kinds present (in the subfamily). Urticating hairs absent (but present on calyces and pods of Mucuna). Lamina with secretory cavities, or without secretory cavities. Secretory cavities containing oil, or containing mucilage, or containing resin. The mesophyll containing mucilage cells, or not containing mucilage cells; with sclerenchymatous idioblasts (occasionally?), or without sclerenchymatous idioblasts. Minor leaf veins with phloem transfer cells, or without phloem transfer cells (Watson and Gunning 1981).

Axial (stem, wood) anatomy. Secretory cavities present, or absent. Cork cambium present (usually), or absent; initially deep-seated, or initially superficial. Nodes tri-lacunar, or penta-lacunar. Primary vascular tissues in a cylinder, without separate bundles, or comprising a ring of bundles. Internal phloem absent. Cortical bundles present, or absent. Medullary bundles absent. Secondary thickening absent, or developing from a conventional cambial ring, or anomalous. The anomalous secondary thickening when present, via concentric cambia (e.g. Derris, Mucuna, Wisteria).

The vessel end-walls simple. The vessels with vestured pits (commonly), or without vestured pits. The axial xylem including septate fibres (rarely), or without septate fibres. The parenchyma apotracheal, or paratracheal. The secondary phloem stratified into hard (fibrous) and soft (parenchymatous) zones, or not stratified. ‘Included’ phloem present, or absent. The wood storied, or partially storied (VPI).

Reproductive type, pollination. Unisexual flowers absent. Plants hermaphrodite (mostly). Pollination entomophilous, or ornithophilous (especially common in southern Australia), or cheiropterophilous (e.g. Mucuna holtoni, where the nectar guide is a petal functioning as a ‘concave mirror’ for ultrasound); mechanism conspicuously specialized (with at least two forms of passive presenter, involving modifications of the style and/or of the keel of the corolla and/or the staminal filaments, and explosive pollination in (e.g.) Medicago), or unspecialized.

Inflorescence, floral, fruit and seed morphology. Flowers aggregated in ‘inflorescences’ (usually), or solitary; when aggregated, in panicles, or in fascicles, or in racemes, or in spikes, or in heads. The ultimate inflorescence units cymose, or racemose (— often ostensibly racemose, but frequently paniculate or, as in Phaseoleae, having pseudoracemes bearing nodal clusters of obscure constitution). Inflorescences terminal, or axillary, or leaf-opposed (e.g., in some Bossiaeeae). Flowers minute to large; calyptrate (rarely), or not calyptrate; somewhat irregular to very irregular (mostly), or regular (some Sophoreae and Swartzieae); usually zygomorphic; resupinate (sometimes, in association with bird pollination or in pendulous inflorescences), or not resupinate. The floral irregularity involving the perianth and involving the androecium. Flowers papilionaceous (usually, with the corolla imbricate-descending, the posterior petal raised to form a flag (‘standard’), and the lower petals housing the stamens and gynoecium), or neither papilionaceous nor pseudo-papilionaceous (occasionally, in Sophoreae, Swartzieae, Amorphieae); tricyclic, or tetracyclic (usually). Floral receptacle developing a gynophore, or with neither androphore nor gynophore; usually more or less cupular. Free hypanthium present (e.g. commonly in Dalbergieae), or absent.

Perianth with distinct calyx and corolla (usually), or sepaline (corolla sometimes missing in Swartzieae, Amorphieae); (5–)10(–11) (?); 2 whorled; isomerous, or anisomerous. Calyx 5, or (3–)5(–6) (?); 1 whorled; usually gamosepalous (below); unequal but not bilabiate, or bilabiate, or regular; persistent (usually), or not persistent (e.g., Lamprolobium); accrescent (rarely), or non-accrescent; ascending imbricate; when pentamerous, with the median member anterior. Epicalyx present (representing adnate bracteoles, e.g. in Pultenaea), or absent. Corolla when present, 5 (usually), or 1–5 (Amorphieae, Swartzieae); 1 whorled; appendiculate (petals often auriculate, etc.), or not appendiculate; polypetalous, or partially gamopetalous, or gamopetalous (rarely, e.g. in Trifolium, where sometimes all the petals are adnate to the androecial tube). Commonly with 2 of the petals joined (the two ventral petals commonly connivent to form the ‘keel’ of the typical ‘papilionate’ corolla), or 4 of the petals joined (with the wings adnate to the keel, e.g. Lens, Pisum, Vicia). The joined petals anterior (or anterior and lateral). Corolla imbricate (descending, with the adaxial member outside and forming a flag (‘standard’)); white, or yellow, or orange, or red, or pink, or purple, or blue; or some members persistent (e.g. Trifolium), or deciduous. Petals clawed, or sessile.

Androecium (5–)9–10(–30) (to ‘many’ only in a few Swartzieae and Sophoreae). Androecial members free of the perianth (mostly), or adnate (e.g. in Dalbergieae, Mirbelieae, Trifolium, Genista, etc., where at least some members or the androecial tube can be attached to corolla components); all equal, or markedly unequal; free of one another (sometimes), or coherent (in a variety of configurations); when cohering 1 adelphous, or 2 adelphous (commonly with the tenth, posterior stamen free of the rest, whose filaments are united into a tube, or 5 + 5); even when 10, 1 whorled (though the antesepalous, theoretically ‘outer’ members develop first, are often longer, and their anthers may differ from those of the antepetalous members). Androecium exclusively of fertile stamens (seemingly with very few exceptions — e.g. Robynsiophyton in the Crotalarieae). Stamens (5–)9–10(–30); isomerous with the perianth (rarely), or diplostemonous (commonly, more or less), or triplostemonous to polystemonous (rarely). Anthers separate from one another to connivent; dorsifixed, or basifixed, or dorsifixed and basifixed (alternating); versatile, or non-versatile; dehiscing via longitudinal slits; introrse, or latrorse; bilocular (usually), or unilocular to bilocular (the thecae sometimes confluent above); tetrasporangiate; appendaged (e.g. gland-tipped in Indigofera), or unappendaged. Endothecium developing fibrous thickenings. Microsporogenesis simultaneous. Anther wall initially with one middle layer, or initially with more than one middle layer; of the ‘dicot’ type. Tapetum usually glandular. Pollen shed as single grains. Pollen grains aperturate (usually), or nonaperturate; (2–)3(–4) aperturate, or 6 aperturate; colporate (commonly), or porate, or colpate, or rugate; 2-celled (in at least 30 genera).

Gynoecium 1 carpelled. Carpels reduced in number relative to the perianth. The pistil 1 celled (nearly always), or 2 celled (by a false septum, e.g. Mirbelia). Gynoecium monomerous; of one carpel; superior. Carpel apically stigmatic; (1–)2–100 ovuled (i.e. to ‘many’, usually in alternating rows along the placenta). Placentation marginal (along the ventral suture). Gynoecium median (the placenta posterior, on the ventral suture). Ovary sessile to stipitate. Ovules pendulous to ascending; biseriate; arillate, or non-arillate; anatropous, or campylotropous to amphitropous, or hemianatropous; bitegmic; crassinucellate. Outer integument contributing to the micropyle, or not contributing to the micropyle. Embryo-sac development Polygonum-type. Polar nuclei fusing prior to fertilization. Antipodal cells formed; 3; not proliferating; ephemeral. Synergids hooked (often with filiform apparatus). Endosperm formation nuclear. Endosperm haustoria present; chalazal, or lateral (rarely). Embryogeny onagrad, or asterad, or caryophyllad.

Fruit non-fleshy, or fleshy. The fruiting carpel dehiscent, or indehiscent; a legume (usually), or a follicle, or an achene, or samaroid, or a loment, or drupaceous. Fruit elastically dehiscent, or passively dehiscent. Dispersal unit the seed, or the fruit. Fruit (1–)2–100 seeded (to ‘many’). Seeds thinly endospermic, or non-endospermic; small to very large; wingless (always?). Seeds with starch, or without starch. Seeds without amyloid. Cotyledons 2; usually flat. Embryo chlorophyllous; nearly always bent (the radicle nearly always inflexed, but rarely short and straight). Micropyle zigzag, or not zigzag.

Seedling. Germination phanerocotylar, or cryptocotylar. Nitrogen-fixing root nodules present (very commonly), or absent (?).

Physiology, phytochemistry. C3. C3 physiology recorded directly in Arachis, Astragalus, Caragana, Crotalaria, Dalea, Dolichos, Genista, Gleditsea, Glycine, Indigofera, Lespedeza, Lotus, Lupinus, Medicago, Olneya, Phaseolus, Pisum, Prosopis, Pueraria, Robinia, Sesbania, Spartium, Stylosanthes, Tephrosia, Trifolium, Vicia, Vigna. Anatomy non-C4 type (Arachis, Astragalus, Psophocarpus, Psoralea, Trigonella etc.). Sugars transported as sucrose (in the 20 genera sampled). Cyanogenic (rarely), or not cyanogenic (mostly). Cynogenic constituents tyrosine-derived, or phenylalanine-derived, or of Hegnauer’s ‘Group C’, or leucine-derived. Alkaloids present (commonly), or absent. Arbutin present, or absent. Iridoids not detected. Proanthocyanidins present, or absent; when present, cyanidin, or delphinidin, or cyanidin and delphinidin. Flavonols present (mostly), or absent; kaempferol and quercetin, or quercetin and myricetin, or kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin. Ellagic acid consistently absent. Aluminium accumulation not found. Sieve-tube plastids P-type (93 genera), or S-type (13 genera); when P-type type IV (seemingly always subtype (b)).

Geography, cytology. Holarctic, Paleotropical, Neotropical, Cape, Australian, and Antarctic. Frigid zone, temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical. Cosmopolitan.

Taxonomy. Subclass Dicotyledonae; Crassinucelli. Dahlgren’s Superorder Fabiflorae; Fabales. Cronquist’s Subclass Rosidae; Fabales. APG 3 core angiosperms; core eudicot; Superorder Rosanae; fabid; Order Fabales.

Species about 9000. Genera about 430; Abrus, Acmispon, Acosmium, Adenocarpus, Adenodolichos, Adenolobus, Adesmia, Aenictophyton, Aeschynomene, Afgekia, Aganope, Airyantha, Aldina, Alexa, Alhagi, Alistilus, Almaleea, Alysicarpus, Amburana, Amicia, Ammodendron, Ammopiptanthus, Amorpha, Amphicarpaea, Amphimas, Amphithalea, Anagyris, Anarthrophyllum, Andira, Angylocalyx, Antheroporum, Anthyllis, Antopetitia, Aotus, Apios, Apoplanesia, Apurimacia, Arachis, Argyrocytisus, Argyrolobium, Anthrocarpum, Arthroclianthus, Aspalanthus, Astracantha, Astragalus, Ateleia, Austrodolichos, Austrosteenisia, Baphia, Baphiastrum, Baphiopsis, Baptisia, Barbiera, Baukea, Behaimia, Belairia, Bergeronia, Biserrula, Bituminaria, Bocoa, Bolusafra, Bolusanthus, Bolusia, Bossiaea, Bowdichea, Bowringia, Brachysema, Brogniartia, Brya, Bryaspis, Burkilliodendron, Butea, Cadia, Cajanus, Calicotome, Callistachys, Calophaca, Calopogonium, Calpurnia, Camoensia, Camptosema, Campylotropis, Canavalia, Candolleodendron, Caragana, Carmichaelia, Carrissoa, Cascaronia, Castanospermum, Centrolobium, Centrosema, Chadsia, Chaetocalyx, Chamaecytisus, Chapmannia, Chesneya, Chordospartium, Chorizema, Christia, Chryoscias, Cicer, Cladrastis, Clathrotropis, Cleobulia, Clianthus, Clitoria, Clitoriopsis, Cochlianthus, Codariocalyx, Coelidium, Collaea, Cologania, Colutea, Corallospartium, Cordyla, Coronilla, Corynella, Coursetia, Craiba, Cranocarpus, Craspedolobium, Cratylia, Crotalaria, Cruddasia, Cullen, Cyamopsis, Cyathostegia, Cyclocarpa, Cyclolobium, Cyclopia, Cymbosema, Cytisophyllum, Cytisopsis, Cytisus, Dahlstedtia, Dalbergia, Dalbergiella, Dalea, Dalhousiea, Daviesia, Decorsea, Dendrolobium, Derris, Desmodiastrum, Desmodium, Dewevrea, Dicerma, Dichilus, Dicraeopetalum, Dillwynia, Dioclea, Diphyllarium, Diphysa, Diplotropis, Dipogon, Dipteryx, Discolobium, Disynstemon, Dolichopsis, Dolochos, Dorycniopsis, Dorycnium, Droogmansia, Dumasia, Dunbaria, Dussia, Dysolobium, Ebenus, Echinospartum, Eleiotis, Eninia, Endosamara, Eremosparton, Erichsenia, Erinacea, Eriosema, Errazurizia, Erythrina, Etaballia, Euchilopsis, Euchresta, Eutaxia, Eversmannia, Exostyles, Eysenhardtia, Fiebrigiella, Fissicalyx, Flemingia, Fordia, Galactia, Galega, Gastrolobium, Geissaspis, Genista, Genistidium, Geoffrea, Gliricidia, Glottidium, Glycine, Glycirrhiza, Gompholobium, Gonocytissus, Goodia, Grazielodendron, Gueldenstaedtia, Halimodendron, Hallia, Hammatolobium, Haplomosia, Hardenbergia, Harleyodendron, Harpalyce, Hebestigma, Hedysarum, Herpyza, Hesperolaburnum, Hesperothamnus, Hippocrepis, Hoitia, Holocalyx, Hovea, Humularia, Hybosema, Hymenocarpos, Hymenolobium, Hypocalyptus, Imbralyx, Indigofera, Inocarpus, Isotropis, Jacksonia, Jansonia, Kennedia, Kotschya, Kummerowia, Kunstleria, Lablab, Laburnum, Lamprolobium, Lathyrus, Latrobea, Lebeckia, Lecointea, Lennea, Lens, Leptoderris, Leptodesmia, Lespedeza, Lessertia, Leucomphalos, Liparia, Lonchocarpus, Lotononis, Lotus, Luetzelbergia, Lupinus, Luzonia, Maackia, Machaerium, Macropsychanthus, Macroptilium, Macrotyloma, Margaritilobium, Marina, Mastersia, Mecopus, Medicago, Meizotropis, Melilotus, Melliniella, Melolobium, Mildbraediodendron, Mellettia, Mirbelia, Monopteryx, Mucuna, Muellera, Muelleranthus, Mundulea, Myrocarpus, Myrospermum, Myroxylon, Nemcia, Neocollettia, Neodunnia, Neoharmsia, Neonotonia, Neorautanenia, Neorudolphia, Nephrodesmus, Nephrostylis, Nissolia, Nogra, Notodon, Notospartium, Olneya, Onobrychis, Ononis, Ophrestia, Orbexilum, Oreophysa, Ormocarpopsis, Ormocarpum, Ormosia, Ornithopus, Ostryocarpus, Ortholobium, Otoptera, Oxylobium, Oxyrhynchus, Oxytropis, Pachecoa, Pachyrhizus, Padbruggea, Panurea, Paracalyx, Paraderris, Paramachaerium, Paratephrosia, Parochetus, Parryella, Pearsonia, Pediomelum, Periandra, Pericopsis, Petaladenium, Peteria, Petteria, Phaseolus, Phylacium, Phyllodium, Phyllota, Phylloxylon, Phycostigma, Pickeringia, Pictetia, Piptanthus, Piscidia, Pisum, Plagiocarpus, Platycelyphium, Platycyamus, Platylobium, Platymiscium, Platypodium, Platysepalum, Podalyria, Podocytisus, Poecilanthe, Poiretia, Poitea, Polhillia, Pongamia, Pongamiopsis, Priestleya, Pseudarthria, Pseudeminia, Pseudoeriosema, Pseudovigna, Psophocarpus, Psoralea, Psoralidium, Psorothamnus, Pterocarpus, Pterodon, Ptycholobium, Ptychosema, Pueraria, Pultenaea, Pycnospora, Rafnia, Ramorinoa, Requienia, Retama, Rhodopis, Rhynchosia, Rhynchotropis, Reideliella, Robinia, Robinsiophyton, Rothia, Rupertia, Sabinea, Sakoanala, Salweenia, Sarcodum, Sartoria, Sauvallella, Schefflerodendron, Scorpiurus, Securigera, Sellocharis, Sesbania, Shuteria, Sindodolichos, Smirnowia, Smithia, Soemmeringia, Sophora, Spartidium, Spartium, Spathionema, Spatholobus, Sphaerolobium, Sphaerophysa, Sphenostylis, Sphinctospermum, Spirotropis, Spongiocarpella, Stauracanthus, Stracheya, Streblorrhiza, Strongylodon, Strophostyles, Stylosanthes, Sutherlandia, Swainsona, Swartzia, Sweetia, Tadehagi, Taralea, Taverniera, Templetonia, Tephrosia, Teramnus, Teyleria, Thermopsis, Tipuana, Trifidacanthus, Trifolium, Trigonella, Tripodion, Uleanthus, Ulex, Uraria, Uribea, Urodon, Vandasina, Vatairea, Vataireopsis, Vatovaea, Vavilovia, Vermifrux, Vicia, Vigna, Viminaria, Virgilia, Weberbaurella, Whitfordiodendron, Wiborgia, Willardia, Wisteria, Xanthocercis, Xeroderris, Yucaratonia, Zollernia, Zornia.

General remarks. This temporary description reflects incomplete breakdown of esoteric characters across the subfamilies of Leguminosae sensu lato (q.v.). However, it is clear that the many features which tend to distinguish the subfamilies all involve rather numerous exceptions, are very incompletely documented, or are not universally applicable.

Economic uses, etc. Economically very important for food, fodder, fibres, dyes, gums, resins, oils, and ‘green manure’; e.g. peas (Pisum), lentils (Lens), peanuts (Arachis), beans (Phaseolus, Vicia), cowpeas (Vigna), soybean (Glycine), clover (Trifolium), alfalfa (lucerne, Medicago), lupins (Lupinus), sweet clover (Melilotus). Numerous cultivated ornamentals, e.g. Wisteria, Cytissus, Genista, Lathyrus. Important tropical timbers from Dalbergia, Robinia, Sophora, etc.

Illustrations. • Le Maout and Decaisne: Colutea, Lathyrus, Tetragonolobus (= Lotus). • Le Maout and Decaisne: (Astragalus, Sarothamnus, Medicago, Onobrychis, Trifolium, Ulex). • Papilionoideae-Vicieae: Lathyrus (B. Ent. compilation). • Papilionoideae-Vicieae: Lathyrus (B. Ent. compilation). • Papilionoideae-Vicieae: Vicia (B. Ent. compilation). • Papilionoideae-Vicieae: Vicia (B. Ent. compilation). • Papilionoideae-Trifolieae: Trifolium (B. Ent. compilation). • Papilionoideae-Trifolieae: Melilotus, Ononis, Medicago (B. Ent. compilation). • Astragaleae (Astragalus), Hedysareae (Onobrychis), Coronilleae (Ornithopus), Loteae (Anthyllis): (B. Ent. compilation). • Loteae: Lotus corniculatus (B. Ent.). • Papilionoideae-Genisteae : Genista, Ulex (B. Ent. compilation). • Mirbelieae: Callistachys lanceolata, habitat and detail (photos). • Bossiaea cinerea: Bot. Reg. 306, 1818. • Bossiaeae: Bossiaea linophylla, habitat and detail (photos). • Amorpha fruticosa: Bot. Reg. 427, 1819. • Anthyllis vulneraria: Eng. Bot. 333, 1864. • Astragalus alpina, A. danicus (as A. hypoglottis) and A. glycyphyllos: Eng. Bot. 375–377, 1864. • Bossiaea cordigera: Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Bossiaea disticha: Bot. Reg. 55, 1841. • Bossiaea ornata: as Lalage, Bot. Reg. 1722, 1835. • Bossiaea spinescens: Bot. Reg. 29 (63), 1843. • Chorizema cordatum: as Chorozema, Bot. Reg. XXIV, 10 (1838). • Chorizema diversifolium: as Chorozema spectabile, Bot. Reg. 45, 1841. • Chorizema varium: Bot. Reg. 1839, 47. • Clianthus puniceus: Bot. Reg. 1775, 1836. • Cytisus scoparius (as Sarothamnus scoparius): Eng. Bot. 329, 1864. • Daviesia alata: Bot. Reg. 728, 1823. • Daviesia cordata: Bot. Reg. 1005, 1826. • Eleiotis trifoliolata: Hook. Ic. Pl. 28 (1903). • Gastrolobium capitatum: Bot. Reg. 29 (16), 1843. • Gastrolobium bilobum: Bot. Reg. 411, 1819. • Gastrolobium coriaceum: Bot. Reg. 913, 1825. • Gastrolobium dilatatum: Bot. Reg. 29 (36), 1843. • Genista monospermum: Bot. Reg. 1918 (1836). • Genista anglica, G. pilosa and G. tinctoria: Eng. Bot. 326–328, 1864. • Glycine coccinea: Bot. Mag. 270 (1794). • Glycine coccinea: Bot. Mag. 270 (1794), text. • Gompholobium grandiflorum: Bot. Reg. 484, 1820. • Gompholobium knightianum: Bot. Reg. 1468, 1831. • Gompholobium polymorphum: Bot. Reg. 1839, 43. • Gompholobium tomentosum: Bot. Reg. 1474, 1831. • Hardenbergia comptoniana: Bot. Reg. 298, 1818. • Hardenbergia comptoniana: as H. digitata, Bot. Reg. xxvi, 60 (1840). • Hardenbergia cordata: Bot. Reg. 944, 1825. • Hardenbergia violacea: Bot. Mag. 263 (1794). • Hardenbergia violacea: Bot. Mag. 263 (1794), text. • Hippocrepis comosa: Eng. Bot. 380, 1864. • Hoita orbicularis: as Psoralea, Bot. Reg. 1971, 1837. • Hosackia crassifolia: as H. stolonifera, Bot. Reg. 1977, 1837. • Hovea chorizemifolia: as H. ilicifolia, Bot. Reg. 1844, 58. • Hovea heterophylla (cf. linearis): Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Hovea linearis: Bot. Reg. 463, 1820. • Hovea longifolia: Bot. Reg. 29 (4), 1843. • Hovea purpurea: Bot. Reg. 1423, 1831. • Hovea trisperma: as H. manglesii, Bot. Reg. XXIV, 62 (1838). • Indigofera australis: Bot. Reg. 386, 1819. • Indigofera atropurpurea: Bot. Reg. 1744, 1836. • Indigofera dosua: Bot. Reg. 57, 1842. • Indigofera stachyoides: Bot. Reg. 29 (14), 1843. • Kennedia glabrata: as Kennedya, Bot. Reg 1842 (1838). • Kennedia nigricans: Bot. Reg. 1715, 1835. • Kennedia prostrata: as K. marryattae, Bot. Reg. 1790, 1836. • Kennedia rubicunda: Bot. Mag. 268 (1794). • Kennedia rubicunda: Bot. Mag. 268 (1794), text. • Kennedia stirlingii: as K. stirlingi, Bot. Reg 1845 (1836). • Lathyrus aphaca (J. E. Sowerby, 1861). • Lathyrus aphaca, L. nissolia and L. hirsutus: Eng. Bot. 397–399, 1864. • Lathyrus pratensis, Lathyrus sylvestris, Lathyrus latifolius: Eng. Bot. 400 and 402–403, 1864. • Lathyrus palustris, L. japonicus (as L. maritimus), L. linifolius (= montanus, as L. macrorrhizus): Eng. Bot. 404–406, 1864. • Lathyrus niger and Lathyrus tuberosus: Eng. Bot. 407 and 450, 1864. • Lathyrus odoratus: Bot. Mag. 2 (1788). • Zichya tricolor, cf. Kennedia coccinea: Bot. Reg. 1839, 52. • Zichya villosa, cf. Kennedia coccinea: Bot. Reg. 68, 1842. • Lotus corniculatus, L. tenuis and L. pedunculatus (as L. major): Eng. Bot. 368–370, 1864. • Lotus angustissimus (as L. diffusus) and L. hispidus: Eng. Bot. 371–372, 1864. • Lupinus arvensis: Bot. Reg. 1844, 1. • Lupinus hartwegii: Bot. Reg. 1839, 31. • Lupinus latifolius: Bot. Reg. 1891 (1836). • Medicago falcata, M. x varia (as M. sylvestris), and M. arabica (as M. maculata): Eng. Bot. 335, 336 and 339, 1864. • Medicago lupulina: Eng. Bot. 337, 1864. • Melilotus altissimus (as M. officinalis) and M. albus: Eng. Bot. 341–342, 1864. • Melilotus indicus (as M. parviflora) and M. officinalis (as M. arvensis): Eng. Bot. 343–344, 1864. • Mirbelia(?) baxteri Lindl., = ?: Bot. Reg. 1434, 1831. • Mirbelia dilatata: Bot. Reg. 1041. • Mirbelia speciosa: Bot. Reg. 58, 1841. • Mundulea sericea, as Tephrosia suberosa: Hook. Ic. Pl.2 (1837). • Onobrychis vicifolia (as O. sativa): Eng. Bot. 381, 1864. • Ononis spinosa (as O. campestris), O. repens (as O. arvensis) and O. reclinata: Eng. Bot. 330–332, 1864. • Ornithopus perpusillus and O. pinnatus (as O. ebracteatus): Eng. Bot. 378–379, 1864. • Oxylobium arborescens: Bot. Reg. 392, 1819. • Oxytropis halleri and O. campestris: Eng. Bot. 373–374, 1864. • Podolobium ilicifolium: as P. trilobatum, Bot. Reg. 1333, 1830. • Platylobium formosum: Bot. Mag. 469 (1800). • Platylobium formosum: Bot. Mag. 469 (1800), text. • Psoralea macrostachya: Bot. Reg. 1769, 1836. • Psoralea onobrychis: Bot. Reg. 453, 1819. • Pultenaea flexilis: Bot. Reg. 1694, 1835. • Pultenaea gunnii: Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Pultenaea stipularis: Bot. Mag. 475 (1800). • Pultenaea stipularis: Bot. Mag. 475 (1800), text. • Pultenaea heterochila: Bot. Reg. 403, 1819. • Pultenaea retusa: Bot. Reg. 378, 1819. • Shuteria involucrata var. glabrata: Hook. Ic. Pl. 2 (1837). • Sophora macrocarpa: as Edwardsia chilensis, Bot. Reg. 1798, 1836. • Streblorrhiza speciosa: as Clianthus Carneus, Bot. Reg. 51, 1841. • Trifolium arvense and T. pratense: Eng. Bot. 347 and 354, 1864. • Trifolium hybridum and T. repens: Eng. Bot. 361 and 362, 1864. • Trifolium subterraneum and T. ornithopodioides (as Trigonella): Eng. Bot. 345–346, 1864. • Trifolium medium and T. ochroleucon (as T. ochroleucum): Eng. Bot. 348–349, 1864. • Trifolium bocconei, T. striatum and T. scabrum: Eng. Bot. 355–357, 1864. • Trifolium incarnatum, T. squamosum (as T. maritimum) and T. stellatum: Eng. Bot. 350–352, 1864. • Trifolium glomeratum and T. suffocatum: Eng. Bot. 358–359, 1864. • Trifolium fragiferum, T. resupinum and T. campestre (as T. procumbens): Eng. Bot. 363–365, 1864. • Trifolium strictum, T. dubium (as T. minus), T. micranthum (as T. filiforme): Eng. Bot. 360 and 366–367. • Trifolium vesiculosum: Bot. Reg. 1408, 1831. • Ulex europaeus, U. gallii and U. minor (as U. eu-nanus): Eng. Bot. 323–325, 1864. • Vicia hirsuta, Vicia tetrasperma and V. parviflora (as V. gracilis): Eng. Bot. 382–384, 1864. • Vicia cracca, V. orobus and V. sylvatica: Eng. Bot. 385–387, 1864. • Vicia sepium and Vicia lutea (the latter as V. eu-lutea and V. laevigata): Eng. Bot. 385–387, 1864. • Vicia sativa ssp. sativa (as V. eu-sativa); V. sativa ssp. segetalis (as V. angustifolia var. segetalis); cf. V. sativa var. nigra (as V. angustifolia var. bobartii): Eng. Bot. 392–394, 1864. • Vicia hybrida, Vicia lathyroides, Vicia bithynica: Eng. Bot. 391, 395 and 396, 1864. • Leaf hairs from 8 genera of Papilionoideae (Solereder, 1908).

We advise against extracting comparative information from the descriptions. This is much more easily achieved using the DELTA data files or the interactive key, which allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, geographical distribution, genera included in each family, and classifications (Dahlgren; Dahlgren, Clifford, and Yeo; Cronquist; APG). See also Guidelines for using data taken from Web publications.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onwards. The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. Version: 24th October 2017.’.