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The families of flowering plants

L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz

Orchidaceae Juss.

Including Limodoraceae Horan., Thyridiaceae Dulac, Vanillaceae Lindl.; excluding Apostasiaceae, Cypripediaceae.

Habit and leaf form. Herbs (of diverse forms). ‘Normal’ plants, or switch-plants, or plants of very peculiar vegetative form (some producing but a single leaf, some achlorophyllous, two species completely subterranean); sometimes with the principal photosynthesizing function transferred to stems, or ‘cactoid’, with succulent, photosynthetic stems; sometimes neotenic. Leaves well developed, or much reduced, or absent (sometimes). Plants succulent (often), or non-succulent; autotrophic, or saprophytic. Perennial; with a basal aggregation of leaves, or without conspicuous aggregations of leaves; cormous, or rhizomatous, or tuberous (or ‘pseudobulbs’). Self supporting, or epiphytic (predominantly), or climbing. Helophytic, or mesophytic, or xerophytic. Leaves small to large; alternate (usually), or opposite (rarely), or whorled (rarely); spiral, or distichous; flat, or folded, or rolled, or terete; ‘herbaceous’, or leathery, or fleshy, or membranous; imbricate, or not imbricate; petiolate; sheathing. Leaf sheaths tubular. Leaves borne edgewise to the stem, or ‘normally orientated’; simple; often jointed at the hase of the blade. Lamina entire; generally linear, or lanceolate, or oblong, or ovate; parallel-veined; cross-venulate (usually), or without cross-venules; auriculate at the base, or cordate, or hastate, or sagittate, or attenuate at the base, or cuneate at the base, or oblique at the base, or rounded at the base. Lamina margins usually entire. Vernation conduplicate, or plicate, or convolute.

General anatomy. Plants with silica bodies (in idioblastic ‘stegmata’, which are ‘present in the leaves of many genera’).

Leaf anatomy. The leaf lamina dorsiventral (at least mostly). Epidermis containing silica bodies, or without silica bodies (?). Stomata present; anomocytic, or paracytic. The mesophyll containing mucilage cells (with raphides), or not containing mucilage cells; containing crystals. The crystals raphides. Foliar vessels present (but sought in only two genera); with scalariform end-walls. Minor leaf veins without phloem transfer cells (Epipactis, Listera).

Axial (stem, wood) anatomy. Secondary thickening absent. The axial xylem with vessels (in 9 of the 15 genera listed by Wagner, 1977), or without vessels.

The vessel end-walls scalariform.

Root anatomy. Roots with velamen (in epiphytic forms), or without velamen. Root xylem with vessels (in the 4 genera where sought); vessel end-walls simple (in Vanilla, the only genus recorded for this feature by Wagner 1977).

Reproductive type, pollination. Plants usually hermaphrodite. Floral nectaries present (but no septal nectaries). Nectar secretion from the perianth, or from the gynoecium (extrafloral nectaries also widespread). Pollination entomophilous (overwhelmingly, but the original description of the monotypic genus Crybe implies it may be cleistogamous); mechanism conspicuously specialized (in great variety, with complex morphological adaptations to the behaviour of pollinators, and often involving hygroscopic movements of pollinia).

Inflorescence, floral, fruit and seed morphology. Flowers solitary, or aggregated in ‘inflorescences’; when aggregated, in panicles, or in racemes, or in spikes, or in heads, or in umbels. The ultimate inflorescence units racemose. Inflorescences scapiflorous, or not scapiflorous; terminal, or axillary. Flowers small to large; fragrant, or odourless; very irregular; zygomorphic (the inner median member being generally enlarged and different in colour, forming the characteristic labellum — this being posterior (adaxial) in origin, but usually appearing anterior (abaxial) through torsion of the pedicel); resupinate (usually), or not resupinate (in Orthopenthea, some species of Disa, Anochilus, Herschelianthe, Prasophyllum, etc.). The floral irregularity involving the perianth and involving the androecium. Flowers 3 merous; cyclic; supposedly basically pentacyclic. Perigone tube absent.

Perianth of ‘tepals’ (usually), or with distinct calyx and corolla (the outer members sometimes green); 6; free, or joined (two or more tepals often coherent at the base, sometimes adherent to the gynoecium); 2 whorled; isomerous (but zygomorphic); petaloid, or sepaloid and petaloid; without spots, or spotted (occasionally). Tepal apex trichomes (TAT) absent (25 genera). Calyx (if the outer whorl be so designated) 3 (the median member usually ostensibly posterior); 1 whorled; polysepalous, or partially gamosepalous, or gamosepalous. Corolla (i.e. the members of the inner whorl) 3; polypetalous, or partially gamopetalous, or gamopetalous; imbricate; (labellum) spurred (often), or not spurred.

Androecium 3. Androecial members free of the perianth, or adnate (via fusion of tepals and gynostemium); united with the gynoecium (nearly always fused with the style to form a ‘gynostemium’, except in rare cases when anthers and stigma are more or less sessile); coherent (via the gynostemium); 1 adelphous; theoretically 2 whorled. Androecium including staminodes. Staminodes 2 (these morphologically anterior (usually ostensibly posterior), supposedly the abaxial pair of the inner whorl); theoretically internal to the fertile stamens. Stamens 1 (this across the flower from the labellum, i.e. anterior but usually ostensibly posterior, supposedly representing the outer whorl); reduced in number relative to the adjacent perianth; alterniperianthial (i.e. with reference to the single stamen, across the flower from the labellum); filantherous, or with sessile anthers. Anthers dorsifixed to basifixed; dehiscing via longitudinal slits; introrse; tetrasporangiate; appendaged, or unappendaged. Endothecium developing fibrous thickenings. The endothecial thickenings spiral, or girdling. Anther epidermis persistent. Microsporogenesis simultaneous. The initial microspore tetrads tetrahedral, or isobilateral. Anther wall initially with one middle layer, or initially with more than one middle layer (1 or 2); of the ‘monocot’ type. Tapetum glandular. Pollen shed in aggregates (usually), or shed as single grains (monads known in about 17 genera); when in aggregates, in tetrads, or in the form of pollinia (the single grains or tetrads held together by strands of sterile sporogenous material). Pollen grains aperturate (occasionally), or nonaperturate; when aperturate, 1 aperturate, or 3–4 aperturate (rarely); sulcate, or sulculate, or ulcerate, or porate, or foraminate; 2-celled (in 14 genera).

Gynoecium 3 carpelled. Carpels isomerous with the perianth. The pistil 1 celled. Gynoecium syncarpous; eu-syncarpous; inferior. Ovary 1 locular. The ‘odd’ carpel anterior (away from the labellum). Gynoecium stylate. Styles 1 (inflexed); apical. Stylar canal present. Stigmas 1; 3 lobed (but becoming much modified in form, the apex of the median lobe forming the ‘rostellum’); wet type; papillate; Group III type. Placentation parietal. Ovules not differentiated; in the single cavity 30–100 (i.e. very numerous); non-arillate; anatropous; bitegmic (usually), or unitegmic; tenuinucellate. Outer integument not contributing to the micropyle. Embryo-sac development Polygonum-type (mostly), or Allium-type. Antipodal cells formed, or not formed (then the nuclei degenerating, e.g. Cymbidium, Dendrobium); when formed, 1–3; not proliferating; ephemeral. Embryogeny when determinable asterad.

Fruit fleshy (sometimes), or non-fleshy; dehiscent (usually), or indehiscent; a capsule (usually), or a berry (e.g. some Vanilleae). Capsules septicidal, or loculicidal. Fruit 30–500 seeded (i.e. seeds usually very numerous). Seeds endospermic (endosperm development arrested very early), or non-endospermic. Perisperm absent. Seeds minute. Seeds without starch. Embryo rudimentary at the time of seed release (usually), or weakly differentiated. Embryo chlorophyllous (6/7). Testa without phytomelan.

Seedling. Seedling collar not conspicuous. Coleoptile absent. Primary root ephemeral.

Physiology, phytochemistry. C3 and CAM. C3 physiology recorded directly in Spathoglottis, Arundina, Coelogyne, Oncidium. CAM recorded directly in Aerangis, Aeranthes, Aerides, Arachnis, Aranda, Aranthera, Ascocentrum, Brassavola, Bulbophyllum, Cadetia, Calanthe, Cattleya, Caularthron, Chiloschista, Coelogyne, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, Dimerandra, Encyclia, Epidendrum, Eria, Flickingeria, Gussonia, Jumellea, Laelia, Lanium, Lissochilus, Luisia, Maxillaria, Microcoelia, Micropera, Mobilabium, Oberonia, Oeonia, Oncidium, Ornithidium, Paphiopedium, Phalaenaopsis, Pholidota, Plectrorrhiza, Pleurothallis, Polyradicion, Rhinerrhiza, Robiquetia, Saccolabiopsis, Saccolabium, Sarcochilus, Schoenorchis, Schomburgkia, Solenangis, Sophronitis, Taeniophyllum, Thrixspermum, Thunia, Trachoma, Trichoglottis, Vanda, Vanilla, Vanda. Anatomy non-C4 type (Habenaria, Spathoglottis, Vanda). Not cyanogenic. Alkaloids present (commonly), or absent. Saponins/sapogenins present (rarely), or absent. Proanthocyanidins present (rarely), or absent; when present, cyanidin. Flavonols absent (save for kaempferol in one species of Dendrobium). Ellagic acid absent. Sieve-tube plastids P-type; type II.

Geography, cytology. Frigid zone (rare), temperate to tropical. Cosmopolitan, most abundant in the tropics. X = 6–29 (or more).

Taxonomy. Subclass Monocotyledonae. Dahlgren et al. Superorder Liliiflorae; Orchidales. APG 3 core angiosperms; Superorder Lilianae; non-commelinid Monocot; Order Asparagales.

Species about 17000. Genera about 850; Aa, Abdominea, Acacallis, Acampe, Acanthephippium, Aceras, Aceratorchis, Acianthus, Acineta, Ackermania, Acoridium, Acostaea, Acriopsis, Acrochaene, Acrolophia, Acrorchis, Ada, Adenochilus, Adenoncos, Adrorhizon, Aerangis, Aeranthes, Aerides, Aganisia, Aglossorrhyncha, Agrostophyllum, Alamania, Altensteinia, Amblyanthe, Ambrella, Amerorchis, Amesiella, Amitostigma, Amparoa, Anacamptis, Ancistrochilus, Ancistrorhynchus, Androcorys, Angraecopsis, Angraecum, Anguloa, Anoectochilus, Ansellia, Anteriorchis, Anthogonium, Anthosiphon, Antillanorchis, Aorchis, Aphyllorchis, Aplectrum, Aporostylis, Aporum, Apostasia, Appendicula, Aracamunia, Arachnis, Archineottia, Arethusa, Armodorum, Arnottia, Arpophyllum, Arthrochilus, Artorima, Arundina, Ascidieria, Ascocentrum, Ascochilopsis, Ascochilus, Ascoglossum, Ascolabium, Aspasia, Aspidogyne, Aulosepalum, Auxopus, Baptistonia, Barbosella, Barbrodria, Barkeria, Barlia, Bartholina, Basigyne, Basiphyllaea, Baskervilla, Batemannia, Beclardia, Beloglottis, Benthamia, Benzingia, Biermannia, Bifrenaria, Binotia, Bipinnula, Bletia, Bletilla, Bogoria, Bolbidium, Bollea, Bolusiella, Bonatea, Bonniera, Brachionidium, Brachtia, Brachycorythis, Brachypeza, Brachystele, Bracisepalum, Braemia, Brassavola, Brassia, Briegeria, Bromheadia, Broughtonia, Brownleea, Buchtienia, Bulbophyllum, Bulleyia, Burnettia, Burnsbaloghia, Cadetia, Caladenia, Calanthe, Caleana, Callostylis, Calochilus, Calopogon, Caluera, Calymmanthera, Calypso, Calyptrochilum, Campanulorchis, Campylocentrum, Capanemia, Cardiochilus, Catasetum, Cattleya, Cattleyopsis, Caucaea, Caularthron, Centroglossa, Centrostigma, Cephalanthera, Cephalantheropsis, Ceratandra, Ceratocentron, Ceratochilus, Ceratostylis, Chamaeangis, Chamaeanthus, Chamaegastrodia, Chamelophyton, Chamorchis, Changnienia, Chaseella, Chaubardia, Chaubardiella, Chauliodon, Cheiradenia, Cheirostylis, Chelonistele, Chiloglottis, Chilopogon, Chiloschista, Chitonanthera, Chitonochilus, Chloraea, Chondradenia, Chondrorhyncha, Chroniochilus, Chrysocycnis, Chrysoglossum, Chusua, Chysis, Chytroglossa, Cirrhaea, Cirrhopetalum, Cischweinfia, Claderia, Cleisocentron, Cleisomeria, Cleisostoma, Cleistes, Clematepistephium, Clowesia, Coccineorchis, Cochleanthes, Cochlioda, Cocleorchis, Codonorchis, Codonosiphon, Coelia, Coeliopsis, Coeloglossum, Coelogyne, Coilochilus, Collabium, Comparettia, Comperia, Conchidium, Condylago, Constantia, Corallorrhiza, Cordiglottis, Coryanthes, Corybas, Corycium, Corymborkis, Corysanthes, Cottonia, Cotylolabium, Cranichis, Cremastra, Cribbia, Crossoglossa, Cryptarrhena, Cryptocentrum, Cryptochilus, Cryptopus, Cryptopylos, Cryptostylis, Cuitlauzina, Cyanaeorchis, Cybebus, Cyclopogon, Cycnoches, Cylindrolobus, Cymbidiella, Cymbidium, Cymboglossum, Cynorkis, Cyphochilus, Cypholoron, Cyrtidiorchis, Cyrtopodium, Cyrtorchis, Cyrtosia, Cyrtostylis, Cystorchis, Dactylorhiza, Dactylorhynchus, Dactylostalix, Degranvillea, Deiregyne, Dendrobium, Dendrochilum, Dendrophylax, Diadenium, Diaphananthe, Diceratostele, Dicerostylis, Dichaea, Dichromanthus, Dickasonia, Dictyophyllaria, Didiciea, Didymoplexiella, Didymoplexis, Diglyphosa, Dignathe, Dilochia, Dilochiopsis, Dilomilis, Dimerandra, Dimorphorchis, Dinema, Dinklageella, Diothonea, Diphylax, Diplandrorchis, Diplocaulobium, Diplocentrum, Diplolabellum, Diplomeris, Diploprora, Dipodium, Dipteranthus, Dipterostele, Disa, Discyphus, Disperis, Distylodon, Dithyridanthus, Diuris, Dockrillia, Dodsonia, Dolichocentrum, Domingoa, Doritis, Dossinia, Dracula, Drakaea, Dresslerella, Dressleria, Dryadella, Dryadorchis, Drymoanthus, Drymoda, Duckeella, Dunstervillea, Dyakia, Earina, Eggelingia, Eleorchis, Elleanthus, Eloyella, Eltroplectris, Elythranthera, Embreea, Encyclia, Entomophobia, Eparmatostigma, Ephippianthus, Epiblastus, Epiblema, Epicranthes, Epidanthus, Epidendrum, Epigeneium, Epilyna, Epipactis, Epipogium, Epistephium, Eria, Eriaxis, Eriochilus, Eriodes, Eriopexis, Eriopsis, Erycina, Erythrodes, Erythrorchis, Esmeralda, Euanthe, Eucosia, Eulophia, Eulophiella, Euphlebium, Eurycentrum, Eurychone, Eurystyles, Evotella, Fernandezia, Ferruminaria, Fimbriella, Flickingeria, Frondaria, Fuertesiella, Funkiella, Galeandra, Galearis, Galeola, Galeottia, Galeottiella, Garaya, Gastrochilus, Gastrodia, Gastrorchis, Gavilea, Geesinkorchis, Gennaria, Genoplesium, Genyorchis, Geoblasta, Geodorum, Glomera, Glossodia, Glossorhyncha, Gomesa, Gomphichis, Gonatostylis, Gongora, Goniochilus, Goodyera, Govenia, Gracielanthus, Grammangis, Grammatophyllum, Graphorkis, Grastidium, Greenwoodia, Grobya, Grosourdya, Gularia, Gunnarella, Gunnarorchis, Gymnadenia, Gymnadeniopsis, Gymnochilus, Gynoglottis, Habenaria, Hagsatera, Hammarbya, Hancockia, Hapalochilus, Hapalorchis, Harrisella, Hederorkis, Helcia, Helleriella, Helonoma, Hemipilia, Herminium, Herpetophytum, Herpysma, Herschelianthe, Hetaeria, Heterozeuxine, Hexalectris, Hexisea, Himantoglossum, Hintonella, Hippeophyllum, Hirtzia, Hispaniella, Hoehneella, Hofmeisterella, Holcoglossum, Holopogon, Holothrix, Homalopetalum, Horichia, Hormidium, Horvatia, Houlletia, Huntleya, Huttonaea, Hybochilus, Hygrochilus, Hylophila, Hymenorchis, Imerinaea, Inobulbon, Ione, Ionopsis, Ipsea, Isabelia, Ischnocentrum, Ischnogyne, Isochilus, Isotria, Jacquiniella, Jejosephia, Jumellea, Kalimpongia, Kefersteinia, Kegeliella, Kerigomnia, Kinetochilus, Kingidium, Kionophyton, Koellensteinia, Konantzia, Kreodanthus, Kryptostoma, Kuhlhasseltia, Lacaena, Laelia, Laeliocattleya, Laeliopsis, Lanium, Lankesterella, Leaoa, Lecanorchis, Lemboglossum, Lemurella, Lemurorchis, Leochilus, Lepanthes, Lepanthopsis, Lepidogyne, Leporella, Leptotes, Lesliea, Leucohyle, Ligeophila, Limodorum, Liparis, Listera, Listrostachys, Lockhartia, Loefgrenianthus, Ludisia, Lueddemannia, Luisia, Lycaste, Lycomormium, Lyperanthus, Lyroglossa, Macodes, Macradenia, Macroclinium, Macropodanthus, Malaxis, Malleola, Manniella, Margelliantha, Masdevallia, Mastigion, Maxillaria, Mediocalcar, Megalorchis, Megalotus, Megastylis, Meiracyllium, Mendoncella, Mesadenella, Mesadenus, Mesoglossum, Mesospinidium, Mexicoa, Microcoelia, Micropera, Microphytanthe, Microsaccus, Microtatorchis, Microthelys, Microtis, Miltonia, Miltoniopsis, Mischobulbum, Mobilabium, Moerenhoutia, Monadenia, Monanthos, Monomeria, Monophyllorchis, Monosepalum, Mormodes, Mormolyca, Mycaranthes, Myoxanthus, Myrmechis, Myrmecophila, Myrosmodes, Mystacidium, Nabaluia, Nageliella, Nematoceras, Neobathiea, Neobenthamia, Neobolusia, Neoclemensia, Neocogniauxia, Neodryas, Neoescobaria, Neofinetia, Neogardneria, Neogyna, Neomoorea, Neotinea, Neottia, Neottianthe, Neowilliamsia, Nephelaphyllum, Nephrangis, Nervilia, Neuwiedia, Nidema, Nigritella, Nothodoritis, Nothostele, Notylia, Oberonia, Octarrhena, Octomeria, Odontochilus, Odontoglossum, Odontorrhynchus, Oeceoclades, Oeonia, Oeoniella, Oerstedella, Olgasis, Oligophyton, Oliveriana, Omoea, Oncidium, Ophidion, Ophrys, Orchipedum, Orchis, Oreorchis, Orestias, Orleanesia, Ornithocephalus, Ornithochilus, Ornithophora, Orthoceras, Osmoglossum, Ossiculum, Osyricera, Otochilus, Otoglossum, Otostylis, Pabstia, Pachites, Pachyphyllum, Pachyplectron, Pachystele, Pachystoma, Palmorchis, Palumbina, Panisea, Pantlingia, Paphinia, Papilionanthe, Papillilabium, Papperitzia, Papuaea, Paradisanthus, Paraphalaenopsis, Parapteroceras, Pecteilis, Pedilochilus, Pedilonum, Pelatantheria, Pelexia, Pennilabium, Peristeranthus, Peristeria, Peristylus, Pescatoria, Phaius, Phalaenopsis, Pholidota, Phragmorchis, Phreatia, Phymatidium, Physoceras, Physogyne, Pilophyllum, Pinelia, Piperia, Pityphyllum, Platanthera, Platycoryne, Platyglottis, Platylepis, Platyrhiza, Platystele, Platythelys, Plectorrhiza, Plectrelminthus, Plectrophora, Pleione, Pleurothallis, Pleurothallopsis, Plocoglottis, Poaephyllum, Podangis, Podochilus, Pogonia, Pogoniopsis, Polycycnis, Polyotidium, Polyradicion, Polystachya, Pomatocalpa, Ponera, Ponerorchis, Ponthieva, Porolabium, Porpax, Porphyrodesme, Porphyroglottis, Porphyrostachys, Porroglossum, Porrorhachis, Prasophyllum, Prescottia, Pristiglottis, Promenaea, Protoceras, Pseudacoridium, Pseuderia, Pseudocentrum, Pseudocranichis, Pseudoeurystyles, Pseudogoodyera, Pseudolaelia, Pseudorchis, Pseudovanilla, Psilochilus, Psychilis, Psychopsiella, Psychopsis, Psygmorchis, Pterichis, Pteroceras, Pteroglossa, Pteroglossaspis, Pterostemma, Pterostylis, Pterygodium, Pygmaeorchis, Pyrorchis, Quekettia, Quisqueya, Rangaeris, Rauhiella, Raycadenco, Reichenbachanthus, Renanthera, Renantherella, Restrepia, Restrepiella, Restrepiopsis, Rhaesteria, Rhamphorhynchus, Rhinerrhiza, Rhizanthella, Rhynchogyna, Rhyncholaelia, Rhynchophreatia, Rhynchostele, Rhynchostylis, Rhytionanthos, Ridleyella, Rimacola, Risleya, Robiquetia, Rodriguezia, Rodrigueziella, Rodrigueziopsis, Roeperocharis, Rossioglossum, Rudolfiella, Rusbyella, Saccoglossum, Saccolabiopsis, Saccolabium, Sacoila, Salpistele, Sanderella, Sarcanthopsis, Sarcochilus, Sarcoglottis, Sarcoglyphis, Sarcophyton, Sarcostoma, Satyridium, Satyrium, Saundersia, Sauroglossum, Scaphosepalum, Scaphyglottis, Scelochiloides, Scelochilus, Schiedeella, Schistotylus, Schizochilus, Schizodium, Schlimmia, Schoenorchis, Schomburgkia, Schwartzkopffia, Scuticaria, Sedirea, Seidenfadenia, Sepalosiphon, Serapias, Sertifera, Sievekingia, Sigmatostalix, Silvorchis, Sinorchis, Sirhookera, Skeptrostachys, Smithorchis, Smithsonia, Smitinandia, Sobennikoffia, Sobralia, Solenangis, Solenidiopsis, Solenidium, Solenocentrum, Sophronitella, Sophronitis, Soterosanthus, Spathoglottis, Sphyrarhynchus, Sphyrastylis, Spiculaea, Spiranthes, Stalkya, Stanhopea, Staurochilus, Stelis, Stellilabium, Stenia, Stenocoryne, Stenoglottis, Stenoptera, Stenorrhynchos, Stephanothelys, Stereochilus, Stereosandra, Steveniella, Stictophyllum, Stigmatosema, Stolzia, Suarezia, Summerhayesia, Sunipia, Sutrina, Svenkoeltzia, Symphyglossum, Synanthes, Synarmosepalum, Systeloglossum, Taeniophyllum, Taeniorrhiza, Tainia, Tangtsinia, Tapeinoglossum, Taprobanea, Telipogon, Tetragamestus, Tetramicra, Teuscheria, Thaia, Thecopus, Thecostele, Thelasis, Thelychiton, Thelymitra, Thelyschista, Thrixspermum, Thulinia, Thunia, Thysanoglossa, Ticoglossum, Tipularia, Tolumnia, Townsonia, Trachyrhizum, Traunsteinera, Trevoria, Trias, Triceratorhynchus, Trichocentrum, Trichoceros, Trichoglottis, Trichopilia, Trichosalpinx, Trichosma, Trichotosia, Tridactyle, Trigonidium, Triphora, Trisetella, Trizeuxis, Tropidia, Trudelia, Tsaiorchis, Tuberolabium, Tubilabium, Tulotis, Tylostigma, Uleiorchis, Uncifera, Urostachya, Vanda, Vandopsis, Vanilla, Vargasiella, Vasqueziella, Ventricularia, Vesicisepalum, Vexillabium, Vrydagzynea, Wallnoeferia, Warmingia, Warrea, Warreella, Warreopsis, Warscaea, Wullschlaegelia, Xenikophyton, Xerorchis, Xiphosium, Xylobium, Yoania, Ypsilopus, Zeuxine, Zootrophion, Zygopetalum, Zygosepalum, Zygostates.

General remarks. No double fertilization.


There, with fantastic garlands, did she come,
Of crow-flowers, nettles, daisies and long-purples
That liberal shepherds give a grosser name,
But our cold maids do dead men’s fingers call them.
(‘Hamlet’ iv., 7 — Orchis mascula)

I sought, the living bee to find,
And found the picture of a bee
(Langhorn, quoted by Ann Pratt, ‘Wild Flowers’ (1857))

Less than the coralroot, you know,
That is content with the daylight low,
And has no leaves at all of its own;
Whose spotted flowers hang meanly down
(Fobert Frost, ‘On Going Unnoticed’ - Corallorhiza)

Illustrations. • Technical details: Aceras, Epidendrum, Orchis. • Technical details: Bulbophyllum, Lepanthes, Malaxis, Neottia, Oncidium, Phalaenopsis. • Technical details: Angraecum, Epidendrum, Fernandezia, Phaius, Pleurothallis, Vanilla. • Technical details: Chysis, Leptotes, Miltonia. • Technical details: Orchis maculata (Goebel). • Adenochilus gracilis and Caladenia minor: Hooker, Fl. Novae-Zelandiae (1853). • British: Orchis and Dactylorhiza (B. Ent. compilation). • British: Dactyorhiza incarnata (B. Ent.). • British: Cephalanthera damosonium (B. Ent.). • British: Corallorhiza trifida (B. Ent.). • British: Gymnadenia, Listera, Platanthera (B. Ent. compilation). • British: Listera cordata: B. Ent. 634. • British: Ophrys, Aceras, Spiranthes (B. Ent. compilation). • British: Coeloglossum, Neottia, Herminium, Epipactis, Anacamptis (B. Ent. compilation). • Australian: Caladenia spp. (photos). • Australian: Prasophyllum and Pterostylis (photos). • Australian: Diuris longifolia (photo). • Anoectochilus regalis: as A. setaceus, Bot. Reg. 2010, 1837. • Arethusa bulbosa: Bot. Mag. 48 (1822). • Arundina deusa: Bot. Reg. 37, 1842. • Arundina graminifolia, as A. bambusifolia: Bot. Mag. 119 (1893). • Aspasia variegata: Bot. Reg. 1907 (1836). • Bartholina pectinata: Bot. Reg. 1653, 1835. • Bromheadia palustris: Bot. Reg. 1844, 18. • Bulbophyllum barbigerum: as Bolbophyllum, Bot. Reg. 1942, 1837. • Bulbophyllum saltatorium: as Bolbophyllum, Bot. Reg. 1970, 1837. • Burnettia cuneata and Caleana major: Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Caladenia carnea: Bot. Mag. 124 (1898). • Calochilus campestris and Lyperanthus nigricans: Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Campylocentrum micranthum: as Angraecum, Bot. Reg. 1772, 1836. • Catasetum deltoideum: as Myanthus, Bot. Reg. 1896 (1836). • Catasetum luridum: Bot. Reg. 1667, 1835. • Cattleya elongata: Bot. Mag. 169 (1842). • Chloraea crispa: Bot. Mag. 130 (1904). • Cirrhopetalum chinense: Bot. Reg. 29 (49), 1843. • Cirrhopetalum medusae: Bot. Reg. 12, 1842. • Cirrhopetalum thouarsii: Bot. Reg. XXIV, 11 (1838). • Coelogyne integerrima: Bot. Mag. 146 (1920). • Coelogyne viscosa, as C. graminifolia: Bot. Mag. 146 (1920). • Corycium orobanchoides: Bot. Reg. XXIV, 45 (1838). • Crybe rosea: Bot. Reg. 1872 (1836). • Dendrobium aureum: Bot. Reg. 29 (17), 1843. • Dendrobium formosum: Bot. Reg. 1839, 64. • Dendrobium sanguinolentum: Bot. Reg. 29 (6), 1843. • Dipodium punctatum: Bot. Reg. 1980, 1837. • Cymbidium elegans, as Cyperorchis: Bot. Mag. 114 (1888). • Diuris maculata and D. sulphurea: Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Diuris corymbosa and D. pedunculata: Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Disa lugens: Bot. Mag. 138 (1912). • Encyclia osmantha, as Epiosmanthum: Bot. Mag. 127 (1901). • cf. Encyclia patens: as Epidendrum odoratissimum, Bot. Reg. 1415 (1831). • Epidendrum clavatum: Bot. Reg. 1870 (1836). • Epidendrum xanthinum: Bot. Mag. 124 (1899). • Epipogium aphyllum, as E. gmelinii: Bot. Mag. 80 (1854). • Eria bractescens: Bot. Reg. 1844, 29. • Esmeralda cathartii, as Vanda: Hooker’s Illustrations of Himalayan plants (1855). • Galeola lindleyana, as Cyrtosia: Hooker’s Illustrations of Himalayan plants (1855). • Gastrodia sesamoides: Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Genoplesium archeri, G. despectans and G. nudum (as Prasophyllum spp.): Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Laelia anceps: Bot. Reg. 1751, 1836. • Laelia anceps var.: as Laelia alba, Bot. Reg. 1839, 54. • Laelia pumila: as Cattleya, Bot. Reg. 1844, 5. • Lepanthes tridentata: Bot. Reg. 1762, 1836. • Leptotes bicolor var. glaucophylla: Bot. Mag. 66 (1839). • Liparis cespitosa, as L. obscura: Hook. Ic. Pl. 19 (1889). • Lissochilus roseus: Bot. Reg. 1844, 12. • Lockhartia acuta: as Fernandezia, Bot. Reg. 1806, 1836. • Lycaste macrophylla: Bot. Reg. 29 (35), 1843. • Malaxis unifolia: Bot. Reg. 1290. • Maxillaria stapelioides: Bot. Reg. 1839, 17. • Maxillaria tenuifolia: Bot. Reg. 1839, 8. • Microtis arenaria and M. pulchella: Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Nematoceras macrantha and N. oblonga: Hooker, Fl. Novae-Zelandiae (1853). • Neottia tenuis and N. pinetorum, as Listera: Hook. Ic. Pl. 22 (1894). • Nervilia plicata, as Pogonia pulchella: Bot. Mag. 111 (1885). • Nervilia plicata, as Pogonia discolor: Bot. Mag. 100 (1874). • Oncidium trulliferum: Bot. Reg. 1839, 57. • Orchis maderensis: as O. foliosa, Bot. Reg. 1701, 1835. • Ophrys speculum: Bot. Mag. 96 (1870). • Peristeria cerina: Bot. Reg. 1953, 1837. • Phalaenopsis aphrodite: as P. amabilis, Bot. Reg. XXIV, 34 (1838). • Pleione humilis, as Coelogyne: Bot. Mag. 93 (1862). • Pleione praecox, as P. reichenbachiana: Bot. Mag. 95 (1869). • Pleurothallis picta: Bot. Reg. 1825, 1836. • Pleurothallis prolifera: Bot. Reg. 1298. • Pleurothallis sirene, as P. scapha: Bot. Mag. 121 (1895). • Podochilus khasianus: Hook. Ic. Pl. 22 (1894). • Prasophyllum alpinum and P. fuscum: Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Prasophyllum patens: Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Prescottia colorans: Bot. Reg. 1916 (1836). • Prosthechea sceptra, as Epidendrum: Bot. Mag. 117 (1891). • Prosthechea spondiada, as Epidendrum: Bot. Mag. 119 (1893). • Pterostylis cucullata, P. dubia and P. obtusa (cf. Diplodium obtusum): Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Renanthera matutina: Bot. Reg. 29 (41), 1843. • Sarcochilus falcatus: Bot. Reg 1832 (1836). • Scaphyglottis violacea: Bot. Reg. 1901 (1836). • Spiranthes bracteosa: Bot. Reg. 1934, 1837. • Stelis immersa, as Pleurothallis: Bot. Mag. 117 (1891). • Tainia bicornis: as Ania, Bot. Reg. 1844, 8. • Thelmytra carnea and T. venosa: Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Thelmytra ixioides and T. nuda: Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Vanda tesselata, as V. roxburgii: Bot. Mag. 48 (1820). • Vanilla planifolia: Bot. Mag. 117 (1891). • Warscewiczella flabelliformis: as Zygopetalum cochleare, Bot. Reg 1857 (1836). • Yoania japonica: Hook. Ic. Pl. 14 (1880–82).

We advise against extracting comparative information from the descriptions. This is much more easily achieved using the DELTA data files or the interactive key, which allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, geographical distribution, genera included in each family, and classifications (Dahlgren; Dahlgren, Clifford, and Yeo; Cronquist; APG). See also Guidelines for using data taken from Web publications.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onwards. The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. Version: 30th September 2017.’.