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The families of flowering plants

L. Watson and M.J. Dallwitz

Compositae Giseke

Alternatively Asteraceae Dum. (nom. altern.).

Including Acarnaceae Link, Ambrosiaceae Dum. & Link (reduced, anemophilous Heliantheae), Anthemideae (Anthemidaceae) Link, Arctotidaceae Bessey, Calendulaceae Link, Carduaceae Dum., Cassiniaceae Sch. Bip., Cichoraceae (Cichoriaceae) Juss., Coreopsideae (Coreopsidaceae) Link, Cynaraceae Juss., Echinopaceae Dum., Echinopiaceae Link corr. Bullock, Echinopsidaceae Link, Eupatoriaceae Link, Heleniaceae Bessey, Helianthaceae Bessey, Helichrysaceae Link corr. Bullock, Inulaceae Bessey, Lactucaceae Bessey, Mutisiaceae Burnett, Nucamentaceae Hoffmgg., Partheniaceae Link, Perdicieae (Perdiciaceae) Link, Ritroneae (Ritronaceae) Hoffmgg. & Link, Senecionidaceae (Senecionaceae) Bessey, Spurionucaceae Dulac, Vernoniaceae Bessey

Habit and leaf form. Herbs (mostly), or trees (rarely), or ‘arborescent’, or shrubs (rarely), or lianas (rarely); laticiferous, or non-laticiferous; bearing essential oils, or without essential oils; resinous, or not resinous. ‘Normal’ plants, or switch-plants. Leaves well developed, or much reduced (sometimes). Plants non-succulent, or succulent (a few). Annual, biennial, and perennial; with a basal aggregation of leaves, or without conspicuous aggregations of leaves. Self supporting (usually), or climbing (rarely); the climbers stem twiners, or scrambling; Mikania twining anticlockwise. Hydrophytic (very rarely, e.g. species of Bidens, Cotula), or helophytic, or mesophytic, or xerophytic; the hydrophytes rooted. Leaves of hydrophytes submerged and emergent. Leaves alternate (usually), or opposite (less often), or whorled (rarely); when alternate, spiral; ‘herbaceous’, or leathery, or fleshy, or membranous, or modified into spines; petiolate to sessile; sheathing, or non-sheathing. Leaf sheaths with free margins. Leaves gland-dotted, or not gland-dotted; aromatic, or foetid, or without marked odour; simple, or compound; peltate (occasionally), or not peltate. Lamina dissected, or entire; pinnatifid, or palmatifid, or runcinate, or spinose. Leaves exstipulate (nearly always), or stipulate (rarely). Lamina margins entire, or crenate, or serrate, or dentate; flat, or revolute, or involute. Leaf development not ‘graminaceous’; leaves becoming compound from primordial lobes. Domatia occurring in the family (known only from a Vernonia species); manifested as pits.

General anatomy. Plants with laticifers (articulated, mainly in the Cichorieae), or without laticifers. The laticifers in leaves, or in stems, or in roots, or in flowers, or in the fruits (in all or different combinations of these).

Leaf anatomy. The leaf lamina variously dorsiventral, or bifacial, or centric (but generaly dorsiventral). Hydathodes present (occasionally), or absent. Stomata mainly confined to one surface, or on both surfaces; usually anomocytic, or anisocytic. Hairs usually present (the family exhibiting numerous kinds); eglandular and glandular (the former represented by diverse types - shaggy, candelabra-like, bladder-like, peltate scales, etc.; the glanduar hairs with uniseriate or multiseriate stalks and unicellular or multicellular heads, sometimes depressed below the leaf surface resulting in pellucid dots, sometimes laticiferous); seemingly exclusively multicellular. Multicellular hairs uniseriate, or multiseriate; branched, or simple. Complex hairs present, or absent. Adaxial hypodermis occasionally present, or absent. Lamina with secretory cavities (commonly), or without secretory cavities. Secretory cavities when present, generally containing resin, or containing latex. The mesophyll containing crystals, or without crystals. The crystals when present, variously raphides, or druses, or solitary-prismatic. Minor leaf veins with phloem transfer cells (58 genera), or without phloem transfer cells (Barnadesia and Eupatorium only).

Axial (stem, wood) anatomy. Young stems with solid internodes, or with spongy internodes, or with hollow internodes. Pith with diaphragms, or without diaphragms. Secretory cavities present (commonly), or absent; when present, generally with resin, or with latex. Cork cambium present, or absent (with interxylary cork recorded, e.g. in Artemisia). Nodes unilacunar, or tri-lacunar, or multilacunar; exhibiting on either side a trace which divides, contributing the outermost lateral traces to each of the opposite leaves (rarely - e.g., in Argyroxiphium), or without split-lateral traces. Primary vascular tissues in a cylinder, without separate bundles (in woody forms), or comprising a ring of bundles (generally, in the familiar herbaceous forms), or comprising two or more rings of bundles; generally collateral. Internal phloem present (very rarely, but recorded in Lactuca and Launea), or absent. Cortical bundles present (commonly, in various configurations), or absent. Medullary bundles present (not uncommonly, these usually collateral but occasionally centric or incomplete), or absent. Secondary thickening absent (?), or developing from a conventional cambial ring, or anomalous. The anomalous secondary thickening when present, via concentric cambia, or from a single cambial ring. Primary medullary rays wide, or mixed wide and narrow, or narrow. The axial xylem with vessels.

The wood ring porous to diffuse porous. The vessels typically very small to small; variously solitary, or radially paired, or in radial multiples, or clustered, or in tangential arcs. The vessel end-walls typically only slightly oblique; simple (usually), or scalariform and simple, or reticulately perforated and simple. The vessels without vestured pits; with spiral thickening (commoner in temperate species), or without spiral thickening. The axial xylem with tracheids (usually), or without tracheids (?); with vasicentric tracheids (sometimes), or without vasicentric tracheids; with fibre tracheids (but rarely recorded), or without fibre tracheids; usually with libriform fibres; including septate fibres (rarely), or without septate fibres. The fibres with spiral thickening (very rarely), or without spiral thickening. The parenchyma typically rather sparse and paratracheal. The secondary phloem stratified into hard (fibrous) and soft (parenchymatous) zones (very rarely), or not stratified. ‘Included’ phloem present (e.g. Chrysanthemoides, Stoebe), or absent. The wood storied, or partially storied, or not storied.

Reproductive type, pollination. Plants gynomonoecious (commonly, with hermaphrodite disk florets and female ray florets), or hermaphrodite, or monoecious, or dioecious, or androdioecious (rarely), or gynodioecious (rarely), or polygamomonoecious. Pollination entomophilous (mostly), or anemophilous (in the Anthemideae, which include significant hayfever plants); mechanism conspicuously specialized (via stylar modification, with active presentation, and the Cynareae also with irritable stamens), or unspecialized (anemophilous forms).

Inflorescence, floral, fruit and seed morphology. Flowers aggregated in ‘inflorescences’; in heads. The ultimate inflorescence units racemose (but the primary capitula sometimes in cymose secondary heads). Inflorescences nearly always indeterminate heads, but sometimes primary ‘heads’ reduced to single florets are grouped into secondary heads — e.g. Echinops; with involucral bracts; usually more or less pseudanthial. Flowers bracteate (the bracts forming an involucre in one to several series); minute to small; regular, or regular and somewhat irregular, or regular and very irregular (often combining central actinomorphic and marginal ‘ray’ florets); (4–)5 merous; cyclic; tricyclic, or tetracyclic.

Perianth with distinct calyx and corolla, or petaline (calyx sometimes absent — e.g. Ambrosia and relatives); (1–)3–35; 1 whorled, or 2 whorled. Calyx when present, (1–)2–30 (of scales, awns or bristles constituting the ‘pappus’); represented by bristles (commonly), or not represented by bristles; 1 whorled; persistent, or not persistent; often accrescent (becoming the pappus); open in bud. Corolla 1–3 (ligulate florets), or (4–)5 (disk florets); 1 whorled; gamopetalous; valvate; unequal but not bilabiate (ligulate), or regular, or unequal but not bilabiate and regular, or bilabiate (in Mutisieae).

Androecium 3–5. Androecial members adnate; coherent; 1 whorled. Stamens 3–5; oppositisepalous (inserted on the corolla tube, alternating with the lobes); filantherous (with short filaments). Anthers cohering (nearly always, forming a tube around the style — with a few exceptions among anemophilous Anthemideae); basifixed; dehiscing via longitudinal slits; tetrasporangiate (usually), or bisporangiate (occasionally); usually appendaged. The anther appendages apical, or apical and basal. Endothecium developing fibrous thickenings. Anther epidermis persistent. Microsporogenesis simultaneous. The initial microspore tetrads tetrahedral, or isobilateral, or decussate. Anther wall initially with one middle layer; of the ‘dicot’ type. Tapetum amoeboid, or glandular (rarely). Pollen grains aperturate, or nonaperturate (perhaps, occasionally?); mostly 3 aperturate; colporate (commonly), or colpate, or porate, or zoniaperturate; lophate (notably in most Lactucoideae), or not lophate (usually spinulose); 3-celled (in 46 genera).

Gynoecium 2 carpelled. The pistil 1 celled. Gynoecium syncarpous; synovarious to synstylovarious; inferior. Ovary 1 locular. Gynoecium median. Epigynous disk usually present (around the base of the style). Styles 2; partially joined; attenuate from the ovary. Stigmas 2; dry type; papillate; Group II type. Placentation basal. Ovules in the single cavity 1; ascending; non-arillate; anatropous; unitegmic; tenuinucellate. Endothelium differentiated. Embryo-sac development Polygonum-type, or Chrysanthemum-type (or unspecified). Polar nuclei fusing prior to fertilization, or not fusing (when apomictic). Antipodal cells formed; 2, or 3 (sometimes becoming multinucleate); proliferating (rarely, with up to 60 cells), or not proliferating. Embryogeny asterad.

Fruit non-fleshy; indehiscent; a cypsella (almost invariably), or a drupe (occasionally). The drupes with one stone. Dispersal unit the remains of the flower (i.e. the cypsella). Dispersal commonly by wind, via the hairy pappus. Seeds non-endospermic (or endosperm ‘very thin’). Cotyledons 2 (expanded); occasionally rolled (but usually planoconvex). Embryo achlorophyllous (17/21); straight (oily).

Seedling. Germination phanerocotylar.

Physiology, phytochemistry. C3, or C4, or CAM, or C3-C4 intermediate. C3 physiology recorded directly in Acanthospermum, Achillea, Ambrosia, Arctium, Artemisia, Aster, Baccharis, Bahia, Bebbia, Bidens Blainvillea, Centaurea, Ceruana, Chrysactinea, Chrysanthemum, Cirsium, Clappia, Coreocarpus, Coreopsis, Cosmos, Dicoma, Dyssodia, Echinops, Encelia, Erodiophyllum, Eupatorium, Flaveria, Franseria, Galinsoga, Goldmanella, Grangea, Grangeopsis, Grindelia, Guizotia, Gymnolaena, Haplopappus, Helianthus, Heterospermum, Hidalgoa, Hofmeisteria, Hymenoclea, Isocoma, Iva, Lactuca, Lagenophora, Leucactinia, Liatris , Matricaria, Myriactis, Nicolletia, Oligochaeta, Parthenium, Peucephyllum, Plagiocheilus, Pluchia, Pulicaria, Rhynchospermum, Schizotrichia, Solenogyne, Solidago, Sonchus, Stephanomeria, Strotheria, Tagetes, Taraxacum, Thelesperma, Tragopogon, Trichoptilium, Trichospira, Urbinella, Varilla, Vernonia, Xanthium, Zinna. C4 physiology recorded directly in Chrysanthellum, Eryngiophyllum, Flaveria, Glossocardia, Glossogyne, Isostigma, Pectis. CAM recorded directly in Aeonium, Aster, Kleinia, Notonia, Othonna, Senecio. C3-C4 intermediacy in Flaveria (10 species) and Parthenium hysterophorus. Anatomy C4 type (Chrysanthellum, Flaveria, Parthenium, Pectis), or non-C4 type (numerous genera). Sugars transported as sucrose, or as sugar alcohols + oligosaccharides + sucrose. Inulin recorded (very widespread). Cyanogenic (rarely), or not cyanogenic. Cynogenic constituents phenylalanine-derived, or of Hegnauer’s ‘Group C’. Polyacetylenes recorded. Alkaloids present, or absent. Anthraquinones detected (3 genera); polyacetate derived. Verbascosides detected (Echinacea). Arbutin present, or absent. Iridoids not detected. Saponins/sapogenins present, or absent. Proanthocyanidins absent (with the exception of Cosmos bipinnatus, with a trace of cyanidin). Flavonols present (mostly), or absent; kaempferol, or quercetin, or kaempferol and quercetin. Ellagic acid practically always absent (absent from 40 species and 28 genera, with a positive record only for Tagetes patula). Ursolic acid present. Aluminium accumulation not found (but many accumulate selenium). Sieve-tube plastids S-type.

Geography, cytology. Frigid zone, temperate, sub-tropical, and tropical. Cosmopolitan. X = 2–19(+). Supposed basic chromosome number of family: 9.

Taxonomy. Subclass Dicotyledonae; Tenuinucelli. Dahlgren’s Superorder Asteriflorae; Asterales. Cronquist’s Subclass Asteridae; Asterales. APG III core angiosperms; core eudicot; Superorder Asteranae; campanulid. APG IV Order Asterales.

Species about 13000. Genera about 1500; Aaronsohnia, Abrotanella, Acamptopappus, Acanthocephalus, Acanthocladium, Acanthodesmos, Acantholepis, Acanthospermum, Acanthostyles, Achillea, Achnophora, Achnopogon, Achyrachaena, Achyrocline, Achyropappus, Achyrothalamus, Acilepidopsis, Acilepis, Acmella, Acomis, Acourtia, Acrisione, Acritopappus, Acroptilon, Actinobole, Actinoseris, Actites, Adelostigma, Adenanthellum, Adenocaulon, Adenocritonia, Adenoglossa, Adenoon, Adenopappus, Adenophyllum, Adenostemma, Adenothamnus, Aedesia, Aegopordon, Aequatorium, Aetheolaena, Aetheorhiza, Ageratella, Ageratina, Ageratinastrum, Ageratum, Agoseris, Agrianthus, Ainsliaea, Ajania, Ajaniopsis, Alatoseta, Albertinia, Alcantara, Alciope, Aldama, Alepidocline, Alfredia, Aliella, Allagopappus, Allardia, Alloispermum, Allopterigeron, Almutaster, Alomia, Alomiella, Alvordia, Amauria, Amberboa, Amblyocarpum, Amblyolepis, Amblyopappus, Amboroa, Ambrosia, Ameghinoa, Amellus, Ammobium, Amolinia, Ampelaster, Amphiachyris, Amphiglossa, Amphipappus, Amphoricarpos, Anacantha, Anacyclus, Anaphalioides, Anaphalis, Anaxeton, Ancathia, Ancistrocarphus, Ancistrophora, Andryala, Angelphytum, Angianthus, Anisochaeta, Anisocoma, Anisopappus, Anisothrix, Antennaria, Anthemis, Antillia, Antiphiona, Antithrixia, Anura, Anvillea, Apalochlamys, Aphanactis, Aphanostephus, Aphyllocladus, Apodocephala, Apopyros, Aposeris, Apostates, Arbelaezaster, Archibaccharis, Arctanthemum, Arctium, Arctogeron, Arctotheca, Arctotis, Argyranthemum, Argyroglottis, Argyrovernonia, Argyroxiphium, Aristeguietia, Arnaldoa, Arnica, Arnicastrum, Arnoglossum, Arnoseris, Arrhenechthites, Arrojadocharis, Arrowsmithia, Artemisia, Artemisiopsis, Asaemia, Asanthus, Ascidiogyne, Aspilia, Asplundianthus, Aster, Asteridea, Asteriscus, Asteromoea, Asteropsis, Asterothamnus, Astranthium, Athanasia, Athrixia, Athroisma, Atractylis, Atractylodes, Atrichantha, Atrichoseris, Austrobrickellia, Austrocritonia, Austroeupatorium, Austrosynotis, Axiniphyllum, Ayapana, Ayapanopsis, Aylacophora, Aynia, Aztecaster, Baccharidopsis, Baccharis, Baccharoides, Badilloa, Baeriopsis, Bafutia, Bahia, Bahianthus, Baileya, Balduina, Balsamorhiza, Baltimora, Barkleyanthus, Barnadesia, Barroetea, Barrosoa, Bartlettia, Bartlettina, Basedowia, Bebbia, Bedfordia, Bejaranoa, Bellida, Bellis, Bellium, Belloa, Berardia, Berkheya, Berlandiera, Berroa, Berylsimpsonia, Bidens, Bigelowia, Bishopalea, Bishopanthus, Bishopiella, Bishovia, Blainvillea, Blakeanthus, Blakiella, Blanchetia, Blennosperma, Blennospora, Blepharipappus, Blepharispermum, Blepharizonia, Blumea, Blumeopsis, Boeberastrum, Boeberoides, Bolanosa, Bolocephalus, Boltonia, Bombycilaena, Borkonstia, Borrichia, Bothriocline, Brachanthemum, Brachionostylum, Brachyactis, Brachyclados, Brachyglottis, Brachylaena, Brachyscome, Brachythrix, Bracteantha, Brickellia, Brickelliastrum, Bryomorphe, Buphthalmum, Burkartia, Cabreriella, Cacalia, Cacaliopsis, Cacosmia, Cadiscus, Caesulia, Calea, Calendula, Callicephalus, Callilepis, Callistephus, Calocephalus, Calomeria, Calostephane, Calotesta, Calotis, Calycadenia, Calycoseris, Calyptocarpus, Camchaya, Campovassouria, Camptacra, Campuloclinium, Canadanthus, Cancrinia, Cancriniella, Cardopatium, Carduncellus, Carduus, Carlina, Carminatia, Carpesium, Carphephorus, Carphochaete, Carramboa, Carterothamnus, Carthamus, Cassinia, Castanedia, Castrilanthemum, Catamixis, Catananche, Catatia, Cavalcantia, Cavea, Celmisia, Centaurea, Centaurodendron, Centauropsis, Centaurothamnus, Centipeda, Centratherum, Cephalipterum, Cephalopappus, Cephalorrhynchus, Cephalosorus, Ceratogyne, Ceruana, Chacoa, Chaenactis, Chaetadelpha, Chaetanthera, Chaetopappa, Chaetoseris, Chamaechaenactis, Chamaegeron, Chamaemelum, Chamaepus, Chaptalia, Chardinia, Cheirolophus, Chersodoma, Chevreulia, Chiliadenus, Chiliocephalum, Chiliophyllum, Chiliotrichiopsis, Chiliotrichum, Chimantaea, Chionolaena, Chionopappus, Chlamydophora, Chloracantha, Chondrilla, Chondropyxis, Chresta, Chromolaena, Chromolepis, Chronopappus, Chrysactinia, Chrysactinium, Chrysanthellum, Chrysanthemoides, Chrysanthemum, Chrysanthoglossum, Chrysocephalum, Chrysocoma, Chrysogonum, Chrysolaena, Chrysoma, Chrysophthalmum, Chrysopsis, Chrysothamnus, Chthonocephalus, Chucoa, Chuquiraga, Cicerbita, Ciceronia, Cichorium, Cineraria, Cirsium, Cissampelopsis, Cladanthus, Cladochaeta, Clappia, Clibadium, Cnicothamnus, Cnicus, Coespeletia, Coleocoma, Coleostephus, Colobanthera, Columbiadoria, Comaclinium, Comborhiza, Commidendrum, Complaya, Condylidium, Condylopodium, Conocliniopsis, Conoclinium, Conyza, Coreocarpus, Coreopsis, Corethamnium, Correllia, Corymbium, Cosmos, Cotula, Coulterella, Cousinia, Cousiniopsis, Craspedia, Crassocephalum, Cratystylis, Cremanthodium, Crepidiastrum, Crepis, Critonia, Critoniadelphus, Critoniella, Critoniopsis, Crocidium, Cronquistia, Cronquistianthus, Croptilon, Crossostephium, Crossothamnus, Crupina, Cuatrecasanthus, Cuatrecasasiella, Cuchumatanea, Cullumia, Cuspidia, Cyanthillium, Cyathocline, Cyathomone, Cyclolepis, Cylindrocline, Cymbolaena, Cymbonotus, Cymbopappus, Cynara, Cyrtocymura, Dacryotrichia, Dahlia, Damnamenia, Damnxanthodium, Dasycondylus, Dasyphyllum, Daveaua, Decachaeta, Decastylocarpus, Decazesia, Delairea, Delamerea, Delilia, Dendranthema, Dendrocacalia, Dendrophorbium, Dendrosenecio, Dendroseris, Denekia, Desmanthodium, Dewildemania, Diacranthera, Dianthoseris, Diaphractanthus, Diaspananthus, Dicercoclados, Dichaetophora, Dichrocephala, Dichromochlamys, Dicoma, Dicoria, Dicranocarpus, Didelta, Dielitzia, Digitacalia, Dimeresia, Dimerostemma, Dimorphocoma, Dimorphotheca, Dinoseris, Diodontium, Diplazoptilon, Diplostephium, Dipterocome, Dipterocypsela, Disparago, Dissothrix, Distephanus, Disynaphia, Dithyrostegia, Dittrichia, Doellingeria, Dolichoglottis, Dolichorrhiza, Dolichothrix, Dolomiaea, Doniophyton, Dorobaea, Doronicum, Dracopis, Dresslerothamnus, Dubautia, Dubyaea, Dugesia, Duhaldea, Duidaea, Duseniella, Dymondia, Dyscritogyne, Dyscritothamnus, Dysodiopsis, Dyssodia, Eastwoodia, Eatonella, Echinacea, Echinocoryne, Echinops, Eclipta, Edmondia, Egletes, Eirmocephala, Eitenia, Ekmania, Elachanthus, Elaphandra, Elephantopus, Eleutheranthera, Ellenbergia, Elytropappus, Embergeria, Emilia, Emiliella, Encelia, Enceliopsis, Endocellion, Endopappus, Engelmannia, Engleria, Enydra, Epaltes, Epilasia, Episcothamnus, Epitriche, Erato, Erechtites, Eremanthus, Eremosis, Eremothamnus, Eriachaenium, Ericameria, Ericentrodea, Erigeron, Eriocephalus, Eriochlamys, Eriophyllum, Eriothrix, Erlangea, Erodiophyllum, Erymophyllum, Eryngiophyllum, Erythradenia, Erythrocephalum, Espejoa, Espeletia, Espeletiopsis, Ethulia, Eucephalus, Euchiton, Eumorphia, Eupatoriastrum, Eupatorina, Eupatoriopsis, Eupatorium, Euphrosyne, Eurybiopsis, Eurydochus, Euryops, Eutetras, Euthamia, Evacidium, Ewartia, Ewartiothamnus, Exomiocarpon, Facelis, Farfugium, Faujasia, Faxonia, Feddea, Feldstonia, Felicia, Femeniasia, Fenixia, Ferreyranthus, Ferreyrella, Filago, Filifolium, Fitchia, Fitzwillia, Flaveria, Fleischmannia, Fleischmanniopsis, Florestina, Floscaldasia, Flosmutisia, Flourensia, Flyriella, Formania, Foveolina, Freya, Fulcaldea, Gaillardia, Galactites, Galeana, Galeomma, Galinsoga, Gamochaeta, Gamochaetopsis, Garberia, Garcibarrigoa, Garcilassa, Gardnerina, Garhadiolus, Garuleum, Gazania, Geigeria, Geissolepis, Geraea, Gerbera, Geropogon, Gibbaria, Gilberta, Gilruthia, Gladiopappus, Glaziovianthus, Glossarion, Glossocardia, Glossopappus, Glyptopleura, Gnaphaliothamnus, Gnaphalium, Gnephosis, Gochnatia, Goldmanella, Gongrostylus, Gongylolepis, Goniocaulon, Gonospermum, Gorceixia, Gorteria, Gossweilera, Goyazianthus, Grangea, Grangeopsis, Graphistylis, Gratwickia, Grauanthus, Grazielia, Greenmaniella, Grindelia, Grisebachianthus, Grosvenoria, Guardiola, Guayania, Guevaria, Guizotia, Gundelia, Gundlachia, Gutierrezia, Gymnanthemum, Gymnarrhena, Gymnocondylus, Gymnocoronis, Gymnodiscus, Gymnolaena, Gymnopentzia, Gymnosperma, Gymnostephium, Gynoxys, Gynura, Gypothamnium, Gyptidium, Gyptis, Gyrodoma, Haastia, Haeckeria, Haegiela, Handelia, Haplocarpha, Haploesthes, Haplopappus, Haplostephium, Harleya, Harnackia, Hartwrightia, Hasteola, Hatschbachiella, Hazardia, Hebeclinium, Hecastocleis, Hedypnois, Helenium, Helianthella, Helianthus, Helichrysopsis, Helichrysum, Heliocauta, Heliomeris, Heliopsis, Helipterum, Helminthotheca, Helogyne, Hemisteptia, Hemizonia, Henricksonia, Heptanthus, Herderia, Herodotia, Herrickia, Hesperevax, Hesperodoria, Hesperomannia, Heteracia, Heteranthemis, Heterocoma, Heterocondylus, Heterocypsela, Heteroderis, Heterolepis, Heteromera, Heteromma, Heteropappus, Heteroplexis, Heterorhachis, Heterosperma, Heterothalamus, Heterotheca, Hidalgoa, Hieracium, Hilliardia, Hinterhubera, Hippia, Hippolytia, Hirpicium, Hispidella, Hochstetteria, Hoehnephytum, Hoffmanniella, Hofmeisteria, Holocarpha, Holocheilus, Hololeion, Hololepis, Holozonia, Homognaphalium, Homogyne, Hoplophyllum, Huarpea, Hubertia, Hughesia, Hulsea, Humeocline, Hyalis, Hyalochaete, Hyalochlamys, Hyaloseris, Hyalosperma, Hybridella, Hydroidea, Hydropectis, Hymenocephalus, Hymenoclea, Hymenolepis, Hymenonema, Hymenopappus, Hymenostemma, Hymenothrix, Hymenoxys, Hyoseris, Hypacanthium, Hypericophyllum, Hypochaeris, Hysterionica, Hystrichophora, Ichthyothere, Idiothamnus, Ifloga, Ighermia, Iltisia, Imeria, Inezia, Inula, Inulanthera, Inulopsis, Iocenes, Iodocephalus, Iogeton, Ionactis, Iostephane, Iotasperma, Iphiona, Iphionopsis, Iranecio, Irwinia, Ischnea, Ismelia, Isocarpha, Isocoma, Isoetopsis, Isostigma, Iva, Ixeridium, Ixeris, Ixiochlamys, Ixiolaena, Ixodia, Jacmaia, Jaegeria, Jalcophila, Jaliscoa, Jamesianthus, Jaramilloa, Jasonia, Jaumea, Jefea, Jeffreya, Jessea, Joseanthus, Jungia, Jurinea, Jurinella, Kalimeris, Karelinia, Karvandarina, Kaschgaria, Kaunia, Keysseria, Kinghamia, Kingianthus, Kippistia, Kirkianella, Kleinia, Koanophyllon, Koehneola, Koelpinia, Krigia, Kyrsteniopsis, Lachanodes, Lachnophyllum, Lachnorhiza, Lachnospermum, Lactacella, Lactuca, Lactucella, Lactucosonchus, Laennecia, Laestadia, Lagascea, Lagedium, Lagenithrix, Lagenophora, Laggera, Lagophylla, Lamprachaenium, Lamprocephalus, Lamyropappus, Lamyropsis, Langebergia, Lantanopsis, Lapsana, Lapsanastrum, Lasianthaea, Lasiocephalus, Lasiolaena, Lasiopogon, Lasiospermum, Lasthenia, Launaea, Lawrencella, Layia, Lecocarpus, Leibnitzia, Leiboldia, Lembertia, Lemoorea, Leontodon, Leontopodium, Lepidaploa, Lepidesmia, Lepidolopha, Lepidolopsis, Lepidonia, Lepidophorum, Lepidophyllum, Lepidospartum, Lepidostephium, Leptinella, Leptocarpha, Leptoclinium, Leptorhynchos, Leptostelma, Lescaillea, Lessingia, Lessingianthus, Leucactinia, Leucanthemella, Leucanthemopsis, Leucanthemum, Leucheria, Leucoblepharis, Leucocyclus, Leucogenes, Leucomeris, Leucophyta, Leucoptera, Leunisia, Leuzea, Leysera, Liabellum, Liabum, Liatris, Libanothamnus, Lidbeckia, Lifago, Ligularia, Limbarda, Lindheimera, Lipochaeta, Litogyne, Litothamnus, Litrisa, Llerasia, Logfia, Lomatozona, Lonas, Lopholaena, Lophopappus, Lordhowea, Lorentzianthus, Loricaria, Lourteigia, Loxothysanus, Lucilia, Luciliocline, Lugoa, Luina, Lulia, Lundellianthus, Lycapsus, Lychnophora, Lycoseris, Lygodesmia, Machaeranthera, Macowania, Macrachaenium, Macraea, Macroclinidium, Macropodina, Macvaughiella, Madagaster, Madia, Mairia, Malacothrix, Mallotopus, Malmeanthus, Malperia, Mantisalca, Marasmodes, Marshallia, Marshalljohnstonia, Marticorenia, Matricaria, Mattfeldanthus, Mattfeldia, Matudina, Mauranthemum, Mausolea, Mecomischus, Megalodonta, Melampodium, Melanodendron, Melanthera, Merrittia, Metalasia, Metastevia, Mexerion, Mexianthus, Micractis, Microcephala, Microglossa, Microgynella, Microliabum, Micropsis, Micropus, Microseris, Microspermum, Mikania, Mikaniopsis, Milleria, Millotia, Minuria, Miricacalia, Miyamayomena, Mniodes, Monactis, Monarrhenus, Monogereion, Monolopia, Monoptilon, Montanoa, Monticalia, Moonia, Moquinia, Morithamnus, Moscharia, Msuata, Mulgedium, Munnozia, Munzothamnus, Muschleria, Mutisia, Mycelis, Myopordon, Myriactis, Myriocephalus, Myripnois, Myxopappus, Nabalus, Nananthea, Nannoglottis, Nanothamnus, Nardophyllum, Narvalina, Nassauvia, Nauplius, Neblinaea, Neja, Nelsonianthus, Nemosenecio, Neocabreria, Neocuatrecasia, Neohintonia, Neojeffreya, Neomirandea, Neomolina, Neopallasia, Neotysonia, Nesomia, Nestlera, Neurolaena, Neurolakis, Nicolasia, Nicolletia, Nidorella, Nikitinia, Nipponanthemum, Nivellea, Nolletia, Nothobaccharis, Nothocalais, Noticastrum, Notobasis, Notoseris, Nouelia, Novenia, Oaxacania, Oblivia, Ochrocephala, Oclemena, Odixia, Odontocline, Oedera, Oiospermum, Oldenburgia, Olearia, Olgaea, Oligactis, Oliganthes, Oligocarpus, Oligochaeta, Oligoneuron, Oligothrix, Olivaea, Omalotheca, Omphalopappus, Oncosiphon, Ondetia, Onopordum, Onoseris, Oonopsis, Oparanthus, Ophryosporus, Opisthopappus, Oreochrysum, Oreoleysera, Oreostemma, Oritrophium, Orochaenactis, Osbertia, Osmadenia, Osmiopsis, Osmitopsis, Osteospermum, Otanthus, Oteiza, Othonna, Otopappus, Otospermum, Outreya, Oxycarpha, Oxylaena, Oxylobus, Oxypappus, Oxyphyllum, Oyedaea, Ozothamnus, Pachylaena, Pachystegia, Pachythamnus, Pacifigeron, Packera, Pacourina, Palafoxia, Paleaepappus, Pamphalea, Pappobolus, Pappochroma, Paracalia, Parachionolaena, Paragynoxys, Paralychnophora, Paranephelius, Parantennaria, Parapiqueria, Paraprenanthes, Parasenecio, Parastrephia, Parthenice, Parthenium, Pasaccardoa, Pechuel-Loeschea, Pectis, Pegolettia, Pelucha, Pentacalia, Pentachaeta, Pentanema, Pentatrichia, Pentzia, Perdicium, Perezia, Pericallis, Pericome, Peripleura, Perityle, Perralderia, Pertya, Perymeniopsis, Perymenium, Petalacte, Petasites, Peteravenia, Petradoria, Petrobium, Peucephyllum, Phacellothrix, Phaenocoma, Phaeostigma, Phagnalon, Phalacrachena, Phalacraea, Phalacrocarpum, Phalacroseris, Phaneroglossa, Phanerostylis, Phania, Philactis, Philoglossa, Philyrophyllum, Phoebanthus, Phyllocephalum, Phymaspermum, Picnomon, Picradeniopsis, Picris, Picrosia, Picrothamnus, Pilosella, Pilostemon, Pinaropappus, Pingraea, Pinillosia, Piora, Pippenalia, Piptocarpha, Piptocoma, Piptolepis, Piptothrix, Piqueria, Piqueriella, Piqueriopsis, Pithecoseris, Pithocarpa, Pittocaulon, Pityopsis, Pladaroxylon, Plagiobasis, Plagiocheilus, Plagiolophus, Plagius, Planaltoa, Planea, Plateilema, Platycarpha, Platypodanthera, Platyschkuhria, Plazia, Plecostachys, Plectocephalus, Pleiotaxis, Pleocarphus, Pleurocarpaea, Pleurocoronis, Pleurophyllum, Pluchea, Podachaenium, Podanthus, Podocoma, Podolepis, Podotheca, Poecilolepis, Pogonolepis, Pojarkovia, Pollalesta, Polyachyrus, Polyanthina, Polyarrhena, Polycalymma, Polychrysum, Polymnia, Polytaxis, Porophyllum, Porphyrostemma, Praxeliopsis, Praxelis, Prenanthella, Prenanthes, Printzia, Prionopsis, Prolobus, Prolongoa, Proteopsis, Proustia, Psacaliopsis, Psacalium, Psathyrotes, Psathyrotopsis, Psednotrichia, Pseudelephantopus, Pseudobahia, Pseudoblepharisper, Pseudobrickellia, Pseudocadiscus, Pseudoclappia, Pseudoconyza, Pseudognaphalium, Pseudogynoxys, Pseudohandelia, Pseudojacobaea, Pseudokyrsteniopsi, Pseudoligandra, Pseudonoseris, Pseudostifftia, Psiadia, Psiadiella, Psilactis, Psilocarphus, Psilostrophe, Psychrogeton, Psychrophyton, Pterachaenia, Pterocaulon, Pterocypsela, Pteronia, Pterothrix, Pterygopappus, Ptilostemon, Pulicaria, Pycnocephalum, Pyrrhopappus, Pyrrocoma, Pytinicarpa, Quelchia, Quinetia, Quinqueremulus, Radlkoferotoma, Rafinesquia, Raillardella, Raillardiopsis, Rainiera, Raoulia, Raouliopsis, Rastrophyllum, Ratibida, Raulinoreitzia, Rayjacksonia, Reichardia, Relhania, Remya, Rennera, Rensonia, Revealia, Rhagadiolus, Rhamphogyne, Rhanteriopsis, Rhanterium, Rhetinolepis, Rhodanthe, Rhodanthemum, Rhodanthemum, Rhynchopsidium, Rhynchospermum, Rhysolepis, Richteria, Riencourtia, Rigiopappus, Robinsonecio, Robinsonia, Rochonia, Rojasianthe, Rolandra, Roldana, Rosenia, Rothmaleria, Rudbeckia, Rugelia, Ruilopezia, Rumfordia, Russowia, Rutidosis, Sabazia, Sachsia, Salmea, Santolina, Santosia, Sanvitalia, Sarcanthemum, Sartorina, Sartwellia, Saussurea, Scalesia, Scariola, Scherya, Schischkinia, Schistocarpha, Schistostephium, Schizogyne, Schizoptera, Schizotrichia, Schkuhria, Schlechtendalia, Schmalhausenia, Schoenia, Sciadocephala, Sclerocarpus, Sclerolepis, Sclerorhachis, Sclerostephane, Scolymus, Scorzonera, Scrobicaria, Selloa, Senecio, Sericocarpus, Seriphidium, Serratula, Shafera, Sheareria, Shinnersia, Shinnersoseris, Siapaea, Siebera, Sigesbeckia, Siloxerus, Silphium, Silybum, Simsia, Sinacalia, Sinclairia, Sinoleontopodium, Sinosenecio, Sipolisia, Smallanthus, Soaresia, Solanecio, Solenogyne, Solidago, Soliva, Sommerfeltia, Sonchus, Sondottia, Soroseris, Spaniopappus, Sparganophorus, Sphaeranthus, Sphaereupatorium, Sphaeromeria, Sphagneticola, Spilanthes, Spiracantha, Spiroseris, Squamopappus, Stachycephalum, Staehelina, Standleyanthus, Staurochlamys, Stebbinsoseris, Steiractinia, Steirodiscus, Stemmacantha, Stenachaenium, Stenocephalum, Stenocline, Stenopadus, Stenophalium, Stenops, Stenoseris, Stenotus, Stephanochilus, Stephanodoria, Stephanomeria, Steptorhamphus, Stevia, Steviopsis, Steyermarkina, Stifftia, Stilpnogyne, Stilpnolepis, Stilpnopappus, Stoebe, Stokesia, Stomatanthes, Stomatochaeta, Stramentopappus, Streptoglossa, Strotheria, Stuartina, Stuckertiella, Stuessya, Stylocline, Stylotrichium, Sventenia, Symphyllocarpus, Symphyopappus, Symphyotrichum, Syncalathium, Syncarpha, Syncephalum, Syncretocarpus, Synedrella, Synedrellopsis, Syneilesis, Synotis, Syntrichopappus, Synurus, Syreitschikovia, Taeckholmia, Tagetes, Takeikadzuchia, Takhtajaniantha, Talamancalia, Tamananthus, Tamania, Tamaulipa, Tanacetopsis, Tanacetum, Taplinia, Taraxacum, Tarchonanthus, Tehuana, Teixeiranthus, Telanthophora, Telekia, Telmatophila, Tenrhynea, Tephroseris, Tessaria, Tetrachyron, Tetradymia, Tetragonotheca, Tetramolopium, Tetraneuris, Tetranthus, Tetraperone, Thaminophyllum, Thamnoseris, Thelesperma, Thespidium, Thespis, Thevenotia, Thiseltonia, Thurovia, Thymophylla, Thymopsis, Tiarocarpus, Tietkensia, Tithonia, Tolbonia, Tolpis, Tomentaurum, Tonestus, Tourneuxia, Townsendia, Tracyina, Tragopogon, Traversia, Trichanthemis, Trichanthodium, Trichocline, Trichocoronis, Trichocoryne, Trichogonia, Trichogoniopsis, Trichogyne, Tricholepis, Trichoptilium, Trichospira, Tridactylina, Tridax, Trigonospermum, Trilisa, Trimorpha, Trioncinia, Tripleurospermum, Triplocephalum, Tripteris, Triptilion, Triptilodiscus, Trixis, Troglophyton, Tuberostylis, Tugarinovia, Turaniphytum, Tussilago, Tuxtla, Tyleropappus, Tyrimnus, Uechtritzia, Ugamia, Uleophytum, Unxia, Urbananthus, Urbinella, Urmenetea, Urolepis, Uropappus, Urospermum, Ursinia, Vanclevea, Varilla, Varthemia, Vellereophyton, Venegasia, Verbesina, Vernonia, Vernoniopsis, Viereckia, Vieria, Vigethia, Viguiera, Villanova, Vilobia, Vittadinia, Vittetia, Volutaria, Waitzia, Wamalchitamia, Warionia, Wedelia, Welwitschiella, Wendelboa, Werneria, Westoniella, Whitneya, Wilkesia, Willemetia, Wollastonia, Wulffia, Wunderlichia, Wyethia, Xanthisma, Xanthium, Xanthocephalum, Xanthopappus, Xeranthemum, Xerolekia, Xylanthemum, Xylorhiza, Xylothamia, Yermo, Youngia, Zaluzania, Zandera, Zexmenia, Zinnia, Zoegea, Zyrphelis, Zyzyxia.

General remarks. See Heywood, Harborne and Turner 1977.

Economic uses, etc. Sources of foodstuffs include Lactuca (lettuce), Cynara (globe artichoke), Cichorium (chicory and endive), Tragopogon (salsify). Insecticides from Pyrethrum, safflower dye from Carthamus. At least 200 genera are widely planted as ornamentals, and ‘ragweed’ (Ambrosia), etc., are notorious hayfever plants.).


Wele by reason men it call may
The dayeseye or ellis the eye of day
(Chaucer, ‘Legend of Good Women’, Prologue (c. 1385))

Without the bed her other fair hand was
On the green coverlet, whose perfect white
Showed like an April daisy on the grass
(‘Rape of Lucrece’)

Your pleasures spring like daisies in the grass,
Cut down, and up again as blithe as ever
(Walter Savage Landor, ‘Ianthe’)

The marigold, that goes to bed wi’ the sun,
And with him rises weeping.
(‘The Winter’s Tale’ - Calendula officinalis)

Her eyes, like marigolds, had sheathed their light,
And canopied in darkness sweetly lay,
‘Til they might open to adorn the day
(‘Rape of Lucrece’ - Calendula officinalis)

And winking marybuds begin
To ope their golden eyes
(‘Cymbeline’, ii. 3 - Calendula officinalis (marigold) buds)

Nay, friar, I am a kind of bur, I stick
(‘Measure for Measure’, iv. 3 - Arctium)

Ragwort thou humble flower with tattered leaves
I love to see thee come and litter gold
(John Clare c.1835, ‘The Ragwort’ — Senecio jacobaea)

And iron-weed, content to share
The meanest spot that spring can spare:
E’en roads where danger hourly comes
Are not without its purple blooms;
(John Clare, quoted by Ann Pratt 1857 — of Centaurea scabiosa)

Then did we question of the down-balls, blowing
To know if some slight wish would come to pass
(Quoted by Ann Pratt, ‘Wild Flowers’ (1857), unattributed - Taraxacum)

If the down flyeth off Coltsfoot, Dandelion, and Thistle, when there is no winde, it is a signe of rain
(Coles, quoted by Ann Pratt, ‘Wild Flowers’ (1857))

-The remaining quotations contributed by N.S. Lander:

‘They are nice flowers’, he said, her emotional tones putting a constraint on him.
‘You know that a daisy is a company of florets, a concourse, become individual. Don’t the botanists put it highest in the line of development? I believe they do.’
‘The compositae, yes, I think so’, said Ursula . . .
‘Explain it so, then’, he said. ‘The daisy is a perfect little democracy, so it’s the highest of flowers, hence its charm.’
‘No,’ she cried, ‘no - never. It isn’t democratic.’
‘No’, he admitted. ‘It’s the golden mob of the proletariat surrounded by a showy white fence of the idle rich.’
‘How hateful - your hateful social orders!’ she cried.
‘Quite! It’s a daisy - we’ll leave it alone.’
(David H. Lawrence, ‘Women in Love’ (1920)

The word is ‘Day’s eye’ (O.E. ‘daeges eage’), and the flower is so called because it closes its pinky lashes and goes to sleep when the sun sets, but in the morning expands its petals to the light.
(Ebenezer Cobham Brewer, revised by Ivor H. Evans, ‘Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable’, Centenary Edn (1970))

Daisy. An emblem of deceit. Greene (‘Quip for an Upstart Courtier’) speaks of the ‘dissembling daisie’. ‘Light of love wenches’ are warned by it ‘not to trust every fair promise that such amorous bachelors make them’. Ophelia in Shakespeare’s ‘Hamlet’ gives the queen a daisy to signify, ‘that her light and fickle love ought not to expect constancy in her husband’.

Daisies, those pearled Arcturi of the earth,
The constellated flower that never sets.
(Percy Bysshe Shelley, ‘The Question’)

Ennewed your colour
Is like the daisy flower
After the April shower.
(John Skelton 1460?-1529, ‘To Mistress Isabell Pennell’)

When you can tread on nine daisies at once, spring has come.
(Proverb, 19th century)

When you can put your foot on seven daisies summer is come.
(Proverb, quoted in M. Grieve, ‘A Modern Herbal’ (1931) 247)

Of all the floures in the meade,
Thanne love I most those floures white and rede,
Such as men callen daysyes.
Chaucer, ‘Legend of Good Women’, Prol. 43 (c. 1385))

Depeinted wonderly,
With many a thousand daisies, red as rose,
And white also.
(Chaucer, ‘The Court of Love’, xv (c.1450))

Let us Finde out the prettiest Daisied Plot we can.
(‘Cymbeline’ IV. ii. 398 (1611))

‘Pushing up daisies’ is their creed, you know.
(Wilfred Owen, ‘Poems’ 65 (1963))

I think she’s drinking herself under the daisies, so to speak.
(S. Vines, ‘Humours Unreconciled’ xxi, 268 (1928))

Where is the wife now? . . .
Pushing up daisies . . .
(G. Heyer, ‘Blunt Instrument’ xiii. 252 (1938))

Daisy roots.
Rhyming slang, boots.
(‘Oxford English Dictionary, Supplement’)

While waiting for my pal I had my daisies cleaned.
(‘Macm. Magazine’ XL, 503/1 (1879))

The umpires called play, Grange being again on the defensive to the under-hand ‘daisy cutters’ of Sadler.
(‘Bell’s Life’ I, Nov. 7/1 (1858))

The ball that kept low had to be a daisy-cutter although a first-class cricket pitch has surely been sufficiently mown to lose all likeness to a flowery meadow.
(‘Times’, 13 June 13/3 (1963))

So courteous, so kind,
As Merry Margaret, the midsummer flower,
Gentle as falcon or hawk of the tower.
(John Skelton (1460?-1529, ‘To Mistress Margaret Hussey’ - Margaret = marguerite)

‘Kiss-me-and-I’ll-tell-you’ replied an attractive native of the Southern States when asked the name of that plant which people of colder climes know as the daisy fleabane.
(W.N Clute, ‘Common Names of Plants’ 131 (1931))

Wormwood. It is said to have been so called because this plant, according to legend, sprang up in the track of the serpent as it writhed along the ground when driven out of Paradise. The word is also used figuratively to denote bitterness or its cause.
(Ebenezer Cobham Brewer, revised by Ivor H. Evans, ‘Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable’, Centenary Edn (1970) - Artemesia)

And the third angel sounded and there fell a great star from heaven, burning as it were a lamp, and it fell upon the third part of the rivers, and upon the fountains of waters.

And the name of the star is called Wormwood: and the third part of the waters became wormwood: and many men died of the waters, because they were made bitter.
(Bible, ‘Revelation’, ch. 8, vv. 10–11 - Artemisia

This riddle, Cuddy, if thou can’st explain . . .
What flower is that which bears the Virgin’s name,
The richest metal joined with the same?
(John Gay, ‘The Shepherd’s Week’, Monday - Calendula officinalis; 17th-century ‘Marygold’ (marigold) = a sovereign.)

I’ll . . . presently go put five hundred Marygolds in a Purse for you.
(Cowley, ‘Cutter of Coleman-st’ iII. iii (1663) - Calendula officinalis; 17th-century ‘Marygold’ (marigold) = a sovereign.)

Thistle. The heraldic emblem of Scotland which seems to have been adopted by James II (1451, 1460–1488), possibly as a symbol of defence. The motto ‘Nemo me impune lacessit, ‘Nobody touiches (or provokes) me with impunity’, first appeared on the coinage of James VI (1566, 1567–1603).

Thistles, especially ‘Our Lady’s Thistle’, are said to be a cure for stich in the side. According to the doctrine of signatures, Nature has labelled every plant, and the prickles of the thistle tell us that the plant is efficacious for ‘prickles’ or the stich. The species called Silybum marianum, we are told, owes the white markings on its leaves to milk from Our Lady’s breast, some of which fell thereon and left a white mark behind.
(Ebenezer Cobham Brewer, revised by Ivor H. Evans, ‘Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable’, Centenary Edn (1970))

You can keep you litter and your hay and your oats. Long live the
thistles of the field, for there you can play the stallion to your
heart’s content.
(François Rabelais (1494?-1553?), ‘Pantagruel’, IV. 7)

He that hath a good harvest may be content with some thistles.
(Proverb, J. Clarke, ‘Paroemiologia Anglo-Latina’ (1639))

Doubts are like the thistle, a bad weed, but growing in good ground.
Baxter, ‘Saint’s R.’, L. vii. (1650))

If the brain sows not corn, it plants thistles.
(Proverb, G. Herbert, ‘Outlandish Proverbs’ (1640), 2nd edn entitled ‘Jacula Prudentum’ (1651))

Get you some of this distilled Carduus Benedictus and lay it to your heart; it is the only thing for a qualm. . . . I mean plain Holy Thistle.
(‘Much Ado about Nothing’ - Cnicus benedictus)

Like a yonge artichocke that always carries pepper and salt, in itselfe.
(Ben Jonson, ‘Ev. blan. in Humm.’ iv. ii. (1598))

Ah, Sun-flower! weary of time,
Who counteth the steps of the Sun,
Seeking after that sweet golden clime,
Where the traveller’s journey is done;
(William Blake (1757–1827), ‘Ah, Sun-Flower!’ - Helianthus)

Illustrations. • Le Maout and Decaisne: Taraxacum. • Le Maout and Decaisne: Tragopogon, Cichorium, Nassauvia. • Le Maout and Decaisne: Centaurea cyanus. • Le Maout and Decaisne: Calendula, Cirsium. • Le Maout and Decaisne: Chrysanthemum, Achillea, Senecio. • Le Maout and Decaisne: Asteriscus, Helianthus, Robinsonia, Tagetes. • Le Maout and Decaisne: Eupatorium. • Vernonia baumii: Thonner. • Barnadesia caryophylla: Bot. Reg. 29 (29), 1843. • Brachyscome decipiens: Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Brachyscome iberidifolia: as Brachycome, Bot. Reg. 09, 1841. • Carlina vulgaris: B. Ent. 642. • ‘Cineraria lanata’, cf. C. tomentosolonatus: Bot. Mag. 2 (1788). • Centaurea glastifolia: Bot. Mag. 2 (1788). • Centaurea pulchra: as C. pulcra, Bot. Reg. xxvi, 28 (1840). • Cosmos scabiosoides: as Cosmus, Bot. Reg. XXIV, 15 (1838). • Cotula alpina and Leptinella filicula (as Cotula): Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Craspedia uniflora: as C. glauca, Bot. Reg. 1908 (1836). • Dahlia imperialis: Bot. Mag. 96 (1870). • Dahlia merckii: as D. glabrata, Bot. Reg. xxvi, 29 (1840). • Dubautia ciliolata, as Railliardia: Bot. Mag. 91 (1865). • Eupatorium glandulosum: Bot. Reg. 1723, 1835. • Helichrysum leucopsideum: Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Gynoxys fragrans: Bot. Mag. 76 (1850). • Helichrysum macranthum: Bot. Reg. XXIV, 58 (1838). • Iostephane heterophylla var. dicksonii: as Echinacea dicksoni, Bot. Reg. XXIV, 27 (1838). • Lagenophora huegeli (as gunniana) and L. montana: Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Lasthenia glabrata: as L. californica, Bot. Reg. 1823, 1836. • Layia calliglossa: as Oxyura chrysanthemoides, Bot. Reg 1850 (1836). • Liatris scariosa: Bot. Reg. 1654, 1835. • Machaeranthera canescens var. incana: as Diplopappus incanus, Bot. Reg. 1693, 1835. • Microseris forsteri (cf. M. lanceolata): Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Olearia colensoi: Hooker, Fl. Novae-Zelandiae (1853). • Olearia cunninghamii (as Eurybia): Hooker, Fl. Novae-Zelandiae (1853). • Olearia lirata (as Eurybia): Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Olearia obcordata (as Eurybia) and O. tasmanica (as E. alpina): Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Celmisia holosericea: Hooker, Fl. Novae-Zelandiae (1853). • Ewartia catipes (as Raoulia tasmanica) and Gnaphalium lawrwencii (as Pterygopappus): Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Helichrysum filicaule and Raoulia tenuicaulis: Hooker, Fl. Novae-Zelandiae (1853). • Leucogenes leontopodium (as Helichrysum) and Raoulia grandiflora: Hooker, Fl. Novae-Zelandiae (1853). • Ozothamnus rosmarinifolius and O. rodwayi (as backhousii): Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Senecio greyi: Hooker, Fl. Novae-Zelandiae (1853). • Senecio leptocarpus and S. pinnatifolius (as capillifolius): Hooker, Fl. Tasmaniae (1860). • Brachyglottis repanda: Hooker, Fl. Novae-Zelandiae (1853). • Petasites hybridus (B. Ent., 1836). • Rhodanthe manglesii: Bot. Reg. 1703, 1835. • Stevia fascicularis: Bot. Reg. XXIV, 59 (1838). • Triptilion spinosum: Bot. Reg. 22, 1841. • Waitzia nitida: Bot. Reg. 1941, 1837. • Waitzia suaveolens: as Morna nivea, Bot. Reg. XXIV, 9 (1838). • Vernonia cotoneaster: as V. axilliflora, Bot. Reg. 1464, 1831. • British Lactuceae (B. Ent. compilation, 1824–35). • British Lactuceae (B. Ent. compilation, 824–35). • British Lactuceae (B. Ent. compilation, 1824–35). • British Cynareae (B. Ent. compilation, 1824–35). • British Cynareae (thistles: B. Ent. compilation, 1824–35). • British Eupatorieae, Heliantheae, Inuleae: B. Ent. compilation, 1824–35. • British Inuleae (B. Ent. compilation, 1824–35). • British Senecioneae (B. Ent. compilation, 1824–35). • British Anthemideae (B. Ent. compilation, 1824–35). • British Anthemideae (B. Ent. compilation, 1824–35). • British Anthemideae (B. Ent. compilation, 1824–35). • British Astereae (B. Ent. compilation, 1824–35). • : Compositae: leaf hairs of assorted genera (Solereder, 1908).

We advise against extracting comparative information from the descriptions. This is much more easily achieved using the DELTA data files or the interactive key, which allows access to the character list, illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, geographical distribution, genera included in each family, and classifications (Dahlgren; Dahlgren, Clifford, and Yeo; Cronquist; APG). See also Guidelines for using data taken from Web publications.

Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onwards. The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. Version: 20th February 2018.’.