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The families of flowering plants

L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz


The references are annotated with ‘subject areas’, mainly to aid searching via computer editors, but assignment of many of the articles is somewhat arbitrary and some appear under more than one heading. Many of the works listed are largely or partly compilations, which themselves list primary data sources: the latter are listed here only when they have been utilized directly.

|A: Major sources of comparative anatomical data, or of background information on anatomical characters and character states

|CL: Classification, phylogeny, and classificatory methodology

|CY: Major data sources for cytology, breeding systems

|E: Major sources for comparative embryology

|G: Morphological terminology

|H: History of the present package

|I: Source of illustrations for the database

|M: Major sources of descriptive morphological and/or phytogeographic data

|N: Sources of nomenclatural information, including those informative re early illustrations

|PH: Major sources for comparative biochemistry, phytochemistry, and physiology

|PO: Major sources for pollen structure

|PP: Photosynthetic pathway data — sources of carbon isotope ratios, carbon dioxide compensation points, and related anatomy.

|Q: Literary quotations

|S: Software and relevant background

|T: Sources of taxonomic and descriptive data of all kinds, pertaining to particular families or to small series of families

ABRS Flora of Australia Online. |N

Airy Shaw, H.K. (1951). The Dioncophyllaceae, a remarkable new family of Flowering Plants. Kew Bull. 327–347. |T

Airy Shaw, H.K. (1973). J.C. Willis’s A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns (eighth edition). Cambridge University Press. |M|N|CL

Alford, M.A. (2006). Gerrardinaceae: a new family of African flowering plants unresolved among Brassicales, Huerteales, Malvales, and Sapindales. Taxon 55, 959–964. |T

Amarasinghe, V. and Watson, L. (1988). Comparative ultrastructure of microhairs in grasses. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 98, 303-319. |PH

Amarasinghe, V. and Watson, L. (1989). Variation in salt secretory activity of microhairs in grasses. Aust. J. Plant Physiology 16, 219-229. |PH

Amarasinghe, V. (1990). Polysaccharide and protein secretion by grass microhairs. Protoplasma 156, 45–56. |PH

Anderberg, A.A., Stahl, B. and Kallersjo, M. (2000). Maesaceae, a new primuloid family in the order Ericales s.l. Taxon 49, 183–187. |T

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (1998). An ordinal classification for the families of Flowering Plants. Ann. Missouri Bot Gard. 85, 531–553. |CL

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). An updated APG classification for the orders and families of flowering plants. Bot. J. Lin. Soc. 141, 399-436. |CL

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classificatin for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161, 105-121. |CL

Appel, O. (1966). Morphology and systematics of the Scytopetalaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 121, 207–227. |T

Austin, D.F. (1973). The American Ericibeae (Convolvulaceae) Maripa, Dicranostyles and Lysiostyles I. Systematics. Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 60, 306–412. |T

Backlund, A. and Nilsson, S. (1997). Pollen morphology and the systematic position of Triplostegia (Dipsacales). Taxon 46, 21–31. |T

Backlund, A. and Bremer, B. (1997). Phylogeny of Asteridae s. str. based on rbcL sequences, with particular reference to Dipsacales. Pl. Syst. Evol. 207, 225–254. |T

Backlund, A. and Pyck, N. (1998). Diervillaceae and Linnaeaceae, two new families of caprifolioids. Taxon 47, 657–663. |CL|T

Bailey, I.W. (1944). The development of vessels in angiosperms and its significance in morphological research. Am. J. Bot 31, 421–428. |A

Bailey, L.H. (1949). Manual of cultivated plants (revised edition). Macmillan, New York. |M|G

Baillon, H. (1867-1895). Histoire des plantes. 13 volumes, Paris. |M|I

Bakker, F.T., Vassiliades, D.D., Morton, C., and Savolainen, V. (1998). Phylogenetic relationships of Biebersteinia Stephan (Geraniaceae) inferred from rbcL and atpB sequence comparisons. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 127, 149–158. |T|CL

Baskin, J.M. and Baskin, C.C. (1981). Photosynthetic pathways indicated by leaf anatomy in fourteen summer annuals of cedar glades. Photosynthetica 15, 205–209. |PP

Bate-Smith, E.C. (1962). The phenolic constituents of plants and their taxonomic significance. J. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) 58, 95–173. I. Dicotyledons. |PH

Bate-Smith, E.C. (1968). The phenolic constituents of plants and their taxonomic significance. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 60, 325–383. |PH

Bate-Smith, E.C., Ferguson, I.K., Hutson, K., Jensen, S.R., Nielsen, B.J. and Swain, T. (1975). Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 3, 79–89. (Iridoids) |PH

Bayer, C., Chase, M.W. and Fay, M.F. (1998). Muntingiaceae, a new family of dicotyledons with malvalean affinities. Taxon 47, 37–42. |T

Bayer, C., et al. (1999). Support for an expanded family concept of Malvaceae within a recircumscribed order Malvales: a combined analysis of plastid atpB and rbcL DNA sequences. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 129, 267–303. |CL

Bello, M.A., Hawkins, J.A., and Rudall, P.J. (2007). Floral morphology and devlopment in Quillajaceae and Surianaceae (Fabales) , the species-poor relatives of Leguminosae and Polygalaceae. Annals of Botany 100, 1491-1505. |T

Bender, M.M. (1971). Variations in the 13C/12C ratios of plants in relation to the pathway of photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation. Phytochemistry 10, 1239–1244. |PP

Bentham, G. and Hooker, J.D. (1862–1883). ‘Genera Plantarum’, vols. I–III. Reeve, London. (Utilized directly for relatively few families.) |M

Berg, C.C. (1978). Cecropiaceae: a new family of the Urticales. Taxon 27, 39–44. |T

Behnke, H.-D. (1972). Sieve-tube plastids in relation to angiosperm systematics — an attempt towards a classification by ultrastructural analysis. Bot. Rev. 38, 155–197. |A

Behnke, H.-D. (1977). Transmission electron microscopy and systematics of flowering plants. Plant Syst. Evol. Suppl. 1, 155–178. |A

Behnke, H.-D. (1997). Sarcobataceae — a new family of Caryophyllales. Taxon 46, 495–507. |T

Boesewinkel, F.D. (1984). Development of ovule and seed coat in Cneorum tricoccon L. (Cneoraceae). Acta Bot. Neerl. 33, 61–70. |T

Boesewinkel, F.D. (1985). Development of ovule and seed-coat in Averrhoa (Oxalidaceae) with notes on some related genera. Acta Bot. Neerl. 34, 413–424. |T

Boesewinkel, F.D. (1987). Ovules and seeds of Trigoniaceae. Acta Bot. Neerlandica 36, 81–91. |T

Boesewinkel, F.D. (1988). The seed structure and taxonomic relationships of Hypseocharis Remy. Acta Bot. Neerl. 37, 111–120. |T

Boesewinkel, F.D. (1994). Ovule and seed characters of Balanites aegyptiaca and the classification of the Linales-Geraniales-Polygalales assembly. Acta Bot. Neerl. 43, 15–25. |T

Bohm, B.A., Chalmers, G. and Bhat, U.G. (1988). Flavonoids and the relationship of Itea to the Saxifragaceae. Phytochemistry 27, 2651–2653. |T

Bonpland, A., Humboldt, A. von and Kunth, K.S. (1815-1825). Nova genera et species plantarum. Lutetiae Parisiorum: sumtibus Librariae Graeco-Latino-Germanico. |I

Borchers, E., Frey, W. and Hilger, H.H. (1982). C4 species in the highlands of Iran and Afghanistan. Notes RBG Edinb. 40, 99–113. |PP

Bremer, B. (1996). Combined and separate analyses of morphological and molecular data in the plant family Rubiaceae. Cladistics 12, 21–40. |T

Brewbaker, J.L. (1967). The distribution and phylogenetic significance of binucleate and trinucleate pollen grains in the Angiosperms. Amer. J. Bot. 54, 1069–1083. |CY

Bouman, F. (1995). Seed structure and systematics in Dioscoreales. In Rudall, P.J. et al. (Editors), ‘Monocotyledons: systematics and evolution’, 139–156. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Bouman, F. and Devente, N. (1992). A comparison of the structure of ovules and seeds in Stemona (Stemonaceae) and Pentastemona (Pentastemonaceae). Blumea 36, 501–504. |T

Bouman, F. and Meijer, W. (1994). Comparative structure of ovules and seeds in Rafflesiaceae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 193, 187–212. |T

Brouwer, Y.M. and Clifford, H.T. (1990). An annotated list of domatia-bearing species. Notes from the Jodrell Laboratory XII, 1–50. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. |M

Bruhl, J.J. (1990). Taxonomic relationships and photosynthetic pathways in the Cyperaceae. Ph.D. thesis, Australian National University, Canberra. |T

Bruhl, J.J., Watson, L. and Dallwitz, M.J. (1992). The genera of Cyperaceae: interactive identification and information retrieval. Taxon 41, 225–234. |T|S

Bruhl, J.J. (1995). Sedge genera of the World: Relationships and a new classification of Cyperaceae. Australian Systematic Botany 8, 125–305. |T

Cantino, P.D., Harley, R.M., and Wagstaff, S.J. (1992). Genera of Labiatae: status and classification. In R.M. Harley and T. Reynolds (Eds.), ‘Advances in Labiate Science’, Appendix, pp. 511–524. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K. |T

Carolin, R.C., Jacobs, S.W.L. and Vesk, M. (1975). Leaf structure in Chenopodiaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 95, 226–255. |PP

Carolin, R.C., Jacobs, S.W.L. and Vesk, M. (1978). Kranz cells and mesophyll in the Chenopodiales. Aust. J. Bot. 26, 683–698. |PP

Carolin, R.C., Jacobs, S.W.L. and Vesk, M. (1982). The chlorenchyma of some members of the Salicornieae (Chenopodiaceae). Aust. J. Bot. 30, 387–392. |PP

Carlquist, S. (1988). Comparative Wood Anatomy. Springer-Verlag, New York. |A

Carlquist, S. (1991). Wood and bark anatomy of Ticodendron: comments on its relationships. Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 78, 97–104. |T

Carlquist, S. (1996). Wood anatomy of Akaniaceae and Bretschneideraceae: a case of near-identity and its systematic implications. Systematic Botany 21, 607–616. |T

Carpenter, C.S. and Dickison, W.C. (1976). The morphology and relationships of Oncotheca balansae. Bot. Gaz. 137, 141–153. |T

Chase, M.W. et al. (1993). Phylogenetics of seed plants: an analysis of nucleotide sequences from the plastid gene rbcL. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80, 528–580. |C

Chase, M.W. and Reveal, J.L. (2009). A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161, 122–127. |CL

Chase, M.W., Reveal, J.L. and Fay, M.F. (2009). A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161, 132-136. |CL

Chase, M.W., Rudall, P.J., and Conran, J.G. (1996). New circumscriptions and a new family of asparagoid lilies: genera formerly included in Anthericaceae. Kew Bull. 51, 667–680. |T

Chase, M.W., Rudall, P.J., Fay, M.F. and Stobart, K.L. (2000). Xeronemataceae, a new family of asparagoid lilies from New Caledonia and New Zealand. Kew Bulletin 55, 865–870. |T

Cheadle, V.I. (1953). Independent origin of vessels in the Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons. Phytomorphology 3, 23–44. |A

Chen, T.M., Brown, R.H. and Black, C.C. (1970). CO2 compensation concentration, rate of photosynthesis, and carbonic anhydrase activity of plants. Weed Science 18, 399–403. |PP

Chenery, E.M. (1948). Aluminium in the plant world, parts I and II. Kew Bull. 1948, 173–182 and 463–473. |PH

Chenery, E.M. and Sporne, K.R. (1976). A note on the evolutionary status of aluminium-accumulators among Dicotyledons. New Phytol. 76, 551–554. |PH

Chittenden, F.J. (1951). Dictionary of Gardening, 4 vols. (Royal Horticultural Society.) Clarendon, Oxford. |M|I|N

Clifford, H.T. (1983–1989). Extensive unpublished original observations on seedling germination. |M

Conran, J.G. (1993). Comrehensive phytogeographical data on the Monocot families, recorded in terms of Takhtajan’s Kingdoms, Subkingdoms and Regions (personal communication). |M

Conran, J.G., Chase, M.W., and Rudall, P.J. (1997). Two new monocotyledon families: Anemarrhenaceae and Behniaceae (Lilianae: Asparagales). Kew Bulletin 52, 995–999. |T

Cronquist, A. (1981). An integrated system of classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia University Press, New York. |CL|M

Cronquist, A. (1988). The evolution and classification of Flowering Plants (Second Edition). New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. |CL

Cuatrecasas, J. (1961). A taxonomic revision of the Humiriaceae. Contr. U.S. National Herbarium 35, Part 2, 25–214. |T

Curtis, J. (1824–1834). British Entomology, vols. 1–12. London. |I

Curtis, W. (1788). The Botanical Magazine, vol. 2. Couchman and Fry, London. |I

Curtis, W. (1790–1800). The Botanical Magazine, vols. 1 and 3–14. Downloadable scans from The Biodiversity Library. |I

Cutler, D.F. and Airy Shaw, H.K. (1965). Anarthriaceae and Ecdeiocoleaceae: two new monocotyledonous families, separated from the Restionaceae. Kew Bull. 19, 489–499. |T

Czaja, A.Th. (1978). Structure of starch grains and the classification of vascular plant families. Taxon 27, 463–470. |A

Dahlgren, R.M.T. (1980). A revised system of classification of the Angiosperms. Bot J. Linn. Soc. 80, 91–124. |CL

Dahlgren, R.M.T. and Clifford, H.T. (1982). The Monocotyledons: a comparative study. Academic Press, London. |A|M

Dahlgren R.M.T., Clifford, H.T. and Yeo, P.F. (1985). The families of the Monocotyledons: structure, evolution and taxonomy. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. |A|CL|M

Dallwitz, M.J. (1974). A flexible computer program for generating identification keys. Syst. Zool. 23, 50–7. |S

Dallwitz, M.J. (1980). A general system for coding taxonomic descriptions. Taxon 29, 41–6. |S

Dallwitz, M.J. (1984). Automatic typesetting of computer-generated keys and descriptions. In Databases in Systematics, Systematics Association Special Volume No. 26, pp. 279–90. (Eds R. Allkin and F.A. Bisby.) (Academic Press: London.) |S

Dallwitz, M.J. (1988a). Representation of extreme and normal values in DELTA. DELTA Newsletter 1, 3. |S

Dallwitz, M.J. (1988b). Notes on INTKEY. DELTA Newsletter 2, 3–4. |S

Dallwitz, M.J. (1989a). Diagnostic descriptions from INTKEY and CONFOR. DELTA Newsletter 3, 8–13. |S

Dallwitz, M.J. (1989b). Diagnostic descriptions for groups of taxa. DELTA Newsletter 4, 8–13. |S

Dallwitz, M.J. (1992). DELTA and INTKEY. In Proceedings of Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Modern Computer Methods for Systematic Studies in Biology, ed. R. Fortuner. University of California: Davis. |S

Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A., and Zurcher, E.J. (1993 onwards). ‘User’s Guide to the DELTA System: a General System for Processing Taxonomic Descriptions.’ 4th edition. |S

Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A., and Zurcher, E.J. (1995 onwards). ‘User’s Guide to Intkey: a Program for Interactive Identification and Information Retrieval.’ 1st edition. |S

Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A., and Zurcher, E.J. (1998). Interactive keys. In ‘Information Technology, Plant Pathology and Biodiversity’, pp. 201–212. (Eds P. Bridge, P. Jeffries, D.R. Morse, and P.R. Scott.) (CAB International: Wallingford.) |S

Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A., and Zurcher, E.J. (1999 onwards). User’s guide to the DELTA Editor. |S

Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A. and Zurcher, E.J. (2000 onwards). Principles of interactive keys. |S

Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A., and Zurcher, E.J. (2002 onwards). Interactive identification using the Internet. |S

Dallwitz, M.J. and Zurcher, E.J. (1988). User’s Guide to TYPSET: a Computer Typesetting Program. 2nd edition. CSIRO Aust. Div. Entomol. Rep. No. 18, 1–28. |S

Damtoft, S., Jensen, S.R. and Nielsen, B.J. (1993). Iridoid glucosides in Epacridaceae. Phytochemistry 33, 377–378. |T

Darwin, C. (1882). The movements and habits of climbing plants. 208 pp. John Murray, London.

Davis, J.I. (1995). A phylogenetic structure for the Monocotyledons as inferred from chloroplast DNA restriction site variation, and a comparison of measures of clade support. Systematic Botany 20, 503–527. |CL

Davis, G.L. (1966). Systematic embryology of the Angiosperms. John Wiley, New York. |E

Davis, P.H. and Cullen, J. (1981). The identification of flowering plant families. Including a key to those native and cultivated in north temperate regions. (Second edition.) 113 pp. Cambridge University Press. |M|G

De Bary, A. (1884). Comparative anatomy of the vegetative organs of the Phanerogams and Ferns. Translated and annotated by F.O. Bower and D.H. Scott. Clarendon Press, Oxford. |A|I

Dickison, W.C. and Baas, P. (1977). The morphology and relationships of Paracryphia (Paracryphiaceae). Blumea 23, 417–438. |T

Dickison, W.C. and Miller, R.B. (1993). Morphology and anatomy of Physena (Physenaceae). Adansonia series 4 (15), 85–106. |T

Dickison, W.C. (1990a). The morphology and relationships of Medusagyne (Medusagynaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 171, 27–55.

Dickison, W.C. (1990b). An additional note on the floral morphology and affinities of Medudagyne oppositifolia (Medusagynaceae). Brittonia 42, 191–196. |T

Doweld, A.B. (1998). Carpology, seed anatomy and taxonomic relationships of Tetracentron (Tetracentraceae) and Trochodendron (Trochodendraceae). Annals of Botany 82, 413–443. |T

Downton, W.J.S. (1975). The occurrence of C4 photosynthesis among plants. Photosynthetica 9, 96–105. |PP

Duyfjes, B.E.E. (1992). Formal description of the family Pentastemonaceae, with some additional notes on Pentastemonaceae and Stemonaceae. Blumea 36, 551–552. |T

Edwards, G.E. and Ku, M.S.B. (1987). Biochemistry of C3-C4 intermediates. In Hatch, M.D. and Boardman, N.K. (eds.), The Biochemistry of Plants, vol. 10, 275–325. |PP

Edwards, Sydenham (1815-1828). The Botanical Register, 14 volumes. Continued (1829-1847) as The Botanical Register or Ornamental Flower Garden, 19 volumes authored and/or edited by John Lindley and James Ridgway. Downloadable scans from The Biodiversity Library. |I

El-Gazzar, A. and Watson, L. (1970). A taxonomic study of Labiatae and related genera. New Phytol. 69, 451–486. |T

Ellis, A. and Midgely, J. (1996). (On the mechanism of ‘carnivory’ in Roridula.) Oecologia 106, 478. |T

Endress, P.K. (1989). Aspects of evolutionary differentiation of the Hamamelidaceae and the Lower Hamamelididae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 162, 193–211. |T

Endress, P.K. (1989). A suprageneric classification of the Hamamelidaceae. Taxon 38, 371–376. |T

Endress, P.K. and Hufford, L.D. (1989). The diversity of stamen structures and dehiscence patterns among Magnoliidae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 100, 45–85. |T

Endress, P.K. and Stumpf, S. (1991). The diversity of stamen structures in ‘Lower’ Rosidae (Rosales, Fabales, Proteales, Sapindales). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 107, 217–293. |T

Engler, A. and Prantl, K.A.E. (1887–1915, 1925–). Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, editions 1 and 2. Leipzig and Berlin. (Taxonomic descriptions used directly for only a few families.) |M|I

Erdtman, G. (1945). Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. IV. Labiatae, Verbenaceae and Avicenniaceae. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 39, 279–285. |T

Erdtman, G. (1966). Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. Angiosperms. (An introduction to palynology. I.) Hafner Publishing Co., London. |PO

Estelita-Teixeira, M.E. and Handro, W. (1983). Leaf ultrastructure in species of Gomphrena and Pfaffia (Amaranthaceae). Can. J. Bot. 62, 812–817. |PP

Eyde, R.H. (1988). Comprehending Cornus: puzzles and progress in the systematics of the dogwoods. Botanical Review 54, 234–351. |T

Fay, M.F., Bayer, C., Alverson, W.S., de Bruijin, A.Y. and Chase. M.W. (1998). Plastid rbcL sequence data indicate a close affinity between Diegodendron and Bixa. Taxon 47, 43–50. |T

Fay, M.F. and Chase, M.W. (1996). Resurrection of Themidaceae for the Brodiaea alliance, and recircumscription of Alliaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Agapanthoideae. Taxon 45, 441–451. |T

Fay, M.F., Swensen, S.M., and Chase, M.W. (1996). Taxonomic affinities of Medusagyne oppositifolia (Medusagynaceae). Kew Bulletin 52, 111–120. |T

Fernando, E.S. and Quinn, C.J. (1995). Picramniaceae, a new family, and a recircumscription of Simaroubaceae. Taxon 44, 177–181. |T

Florabase: the Western Australian Flora. Web site of the Western Australian Herbarium. |N

Franks, J.W. and Watson, L. (1963). The pollen morphology of some critical Ericales. Pollen et Spores 5, 51-68. |T

Frey, W. and Kürschner, H. (1983). Photosyntheseweg und Zonierung von Halophyten an Salzeen in der Tükei, in Jordanien, und im Iran. Flora 173, 293–310. |PP

Frost, F.H. (1930a). Specialization in secondary xylem of dicotyledons. I. Origin of vessel. Bot. Gaz. 89, 67–94. |A

Frost, F.H. (1930b). Specialization in secondary xylem of dicotyledons. II. Evolution of end wall of vessel segment. Bot. Gaz. 90, 198–212. |A

Gadek, P.A., Fernando, E.S., Quinn, C.J., Hoot, S.B., Terrazas, T., Sheahan, M.C. and Chase, M.W. (1996). Sapindales: molecular delimitation and infraordinal groups. American J. Bot. 83, 802–811. |CL

Gadek, P.A., Quinn, C.J., Rodman, J.E., Karol, K.G., Conti, E., Price, R.A. and Fernando, E.S. (1992). Affinities of the Australian endemic Akaniaceae: new evidence from rbcL sequences. Aust. Syst. Bot. 5, 717–724. |T

Geesink, R., Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., Ridsdale. C.E and Veldkamp, J.F. (1981). Thonner’s analytical key to the families of flowering plants. Leiden University Press, The Hague. (Not used as a data source, but helpful in checking descriptions.) |M|G

George, A.S. (Ed.) et al. (1982–). Flora of Australia. Bureau of Flora and Fauna, Canberra. Australian Government Printing Service. (As yet only Vols. 4, 8, 28 and 45 extensively pursued for data.) |T

Gibbs, R.D. (1974). Chemotaxonomy of Flowering Plants, Vols. 1–4. McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal & London. (With copious phytochemical data, including original observations complete with ‘negatives’.) |PH

Gilmore, J. (1946). British Botanists. Collins, London. |Q

Gómez-Laurito, J. and Gómez, L.D.P. (1989). Ticodendron: a new tree from central America. Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 76, 1148–1151. |T

Gómez-Laurito, J. and Gómez, P.L.D. (1991). Ticodendraceae: a new family of Flowering Plants. Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 78, 87–88. |T

Graham, S.A. (1984). Alzateaceae, a new family of Myrtales in the American tropics. Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 71, 757–779. |T

Grayum, M.H. (1987). A summary of evidence and arguments supporting the removal of Acorus from the Araceae. Taxon 36, 723–729. |T

Grindon, L.H. (1883). The Shakespere Flora. Palmer and Howe, Manchester. |Q

Gunn, C.R., Wiersema, J.H., Ritchie, C.A. and Kirkbride, J.H. (1992). Families and Genera of Spermatophytes recognized by the Agricultural Research Service. U.S.D.A. Agricultural Research Service Technical Bulletin 1796. 500pp. See Wiersema (1997) for WWW updates. |N|T

Ham, R.W.J.M. van der, Baas, P., Bakker, M.E., Boesewinkel, F.D., Bouman, F., van Heuven, B.J. and Klaassen, R.K.W.M. (1995). Bottegoa Chiov. transferred to the Ptaeroxylaceae. Kew Bull. 50, 243–265. |T

Harris, J.G. and Harris, M.W. (1994). Plant Identification Terminology. An illustrated glossary. Spring Lake Publishing, Utah. |G

Hawkes, J.G., Lester, R.N. and Skelding, A.D. (editors) (1979). The Biology and Taxonomy of the Solanaceae. Academic Press, London. |T

Heel, W.A. Van (1966). Anatomical and ontogenetic investigations on the morphology of the flowers and fruit of Scyphostegia borneensis Stapf (Scyphostegiaceae). Blumea 15, 107–125. |T

Heel, W.A. Van (1992). Floral morphology of Stemonaceae and Pentastemonaceae. Blumea 36, 481–499. |T

Hegnauer, R. (1977). Cyanogenic compounds as systematic markers in Tracheophyta. Plant Syst. Evol. Suppl. 1, 191–209. |PH

Henderson, R.J.F. (1987). Blandfordia. In George, A.S. (ed), Flora of Australia vol. 45, 175–178. Bureau of Flora and Fauna, Canberra. Australian Government Publishing Service. |T

Heo, K., Van Der Werff, H., and Tobe, H. (1998). Embryology and relationships of Lauraceae (Laurales). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 126, 295–322. |E

Heslop-Harrison, Y. and Shivanna,K.R. (1977). The receptive surface of the angiosperm stigma. Ann, Bot. 41, 1233–2258. |A

Heywood, V.H. (editor) (1971). The Biology and Chemistry of the Umbelliferae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. Suppl. 1. Academic Press, London. |T

Heywood, V.H. (editor) (1978). Flowering plants of the world. Oxford University Press. |M

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