DELTA home

The families of flowering plants

L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz

References

The references are annotated with ‘subject areas’, mainly to aid searching via computer editors, but assignment of many of the articles is somewhat arbitrary and some appear under more than one heading. Many of the works listed are largely or partly compilations, which themselves list primary data sources: the latter are listed here only when they have been utilized directly.

|A: Major sources of comparative anatomical data, or of background information on anatomical characters and character states

|CL: Classification, phylogeny, and classificatory methodology

|CY: Major data sources for cytology, breeding systems

|E: Major sources for comparative embryology

|G: Morphological terminology

|H: History of the present package

|I: Source of illustrations for the database

|M: Major sources of descriptive morphological and/or phytogeographic data

|N: Sources of nomenclatural information, including those informative re early illustrations

|PH: Major sources for comparative biochemistry, phytochemistry, and physiology

|PO: Major sources for pollen structure

|PP: Photosynthetic pathway data — sources of carbon isotope ratios, carbon dioxide compensation points, and related anatomy.

|Q: Literary quotations

|S: Software and relevant background

|T: Sources of taxonomic and descriptive data of all kinds, pertaining to particular families or to small series of families

ABRS Flora of Australia Online. www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/online-resources/flora/index.html |N

Airy Shaw, H.K. (1951). The Dioncophyllaceae, a remarkable new family of Flowering Plants. Kew Bull. 327–347. |T

Airy Shaw, H.K. (1973). J.C. Willis’s A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns (eighth edition). Cambridge University Press. |M|N|CL

Alford, M.A. (2006). Gerrardinaceae: a new family of African flowering plants unresolved among Brassicales, Huerteales, Malvales, and Sapindales. Taxon 55, 959–964. |T

Amarasinghe, V. and Watson, L. (1988). Comparative ultrastructure of microhairs in grasses. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 98, 303-319. |PH

Amarasinghe, V. and Watson, L. (1989). Variation in salt secretory activity of microhairs in grasses. Aust. J. Plant Physiology 16, 219-229. |PH

Amarasinghe, V. (1990). Polysaccharide and protein secretion by grass microhairs. Protoplasma 156, 45–56. |PH

Anderberg, A.A., Stahl, B. and Kallersjo, M. (2000). Maesaceae, a new primuloid family in the order Ericales s.l. Taxon 49, 183–187. |T

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (1998). An ordinal classification for the families of Flowering Plants. Ann. Missouri Bot Gard. 85, 531–553. |CL

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2003). An updated APG classification for the orders and families of flowering plants. Bot. J. Lin. Soc. 141, 399-436. |CL

Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classificatin for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161, 105-121. |CL

Appel, O. (1966). Morphology and systematics of the Scytopetalaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 121, 207–227. |T

Austin, D.F. (1973). The American Ericibeae (Convolvulaceae) Maripa, Dicranostyles and Lysiostyles I. Systematics. Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 60, 306–412. |T

Backlund, A. and Nilsson, S. (1997). Pollen morphology and the systematic position of Triplostegia (Dipsacales). Taxon 46, 21–31. |T

Backlund, A. and Bremer, B. (1997). Phylogeny of Asteridae s. str. based on rbcL sequences, with particular reference to Dipsacales. Pl. Syst. Evol. 207, 225–254. |T

Backlund, A. and Pyck, N. (1998). Diervillaceae and Linnaeaceae, two new families of caprifolioids. Taxon 47, 657–663. |CL|T

Bailey, I.W. (1944). The development of vessels in angiosperms and its significance in morphological research. Am. J. Bot 31, 421–428. |A

Bailey, L.H. (1949). Manual of cultivated plants (revised edition). Macmillan, New York. |M|G

Baillon, H. (1867-1895). Histoire des plantes. 13 volumes, Paris. |M|I

Bakker, F.T., Vassiliades, D.D., Morton, C., and Savolainen, V. (1998). Phylogenetic relationships of Biebersteinia Stephan (Geraniaceae) inferred from rbcL and atpB sequence comparisons. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 127, 149–158. |T|CL

Baskin, J.M. and Baskin, C.C. (1981). Photosynthetic pathways indicated by leaf anatomy in fourteen summer annuals of cedar glades. Photosynthetica 15, 205–209. |PP

Bate-Smith, E.C. (1962). The phenolic constituents of plants and their taxonomic significance. J. Linn. Soc. (Bot.) 58, 95–173. I. Dicotyledons. |PH

Bate-Smith, E.C. (1968). The phenolic constituents of plants and their taxonomic significance. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 60, 325–383. |PH

Bate-Smith, E.C., Ferguson, I.K., Hutson, K., Jensen, S.R., Nielsen, B.J. and Swain, T. (1975). Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 3, 79–89. (Iridoids) |PH

Bayer, C., Chase, M.W. and Fay, M.F. (1998). Muntingiaceae, a new family of dicotyledons with malvalean affinities. Taxon 47, 37–42. |T

Bayer, C., et al. (1999). Support for an expanded family concept of Malvaceae within a recircumscribed order Malvales: a combined analysis of plastid atpB and rbcL DNA sequences. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 129, 267–303. |CL

Bello, M.A., Hawkins, J.A., and Rudall, P.J. (2007). Floral morphology and devlopment in Quillajaceae and Surianaceae (Fabales) , the species-poor relatives of Leguminosae and Polygalaceae. Annals of Botany 100, 1491-1505. |T

Bender, M.M. (1971). Variations in the 13C/12C ratios of plants in relation to the pathway of photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation. Phytochemistry 10, 1239–1244. |PP

Bentham, G. and Hooker, J.D. (1862–1883). ‘Genera Plantarum’, vols. I–III. Reeve, London. (Utilized directly for relatively few families.) |M

Berg, C.C. (1978). Cecropiaceae: a new family of the Urticales. Taxon 27, 39–44. |T

Behnke, H.-D. (1972). Sieve-tube plastids in relation to angiosperm systematics — an attempt towards a classification by ultrastructural analysis. Bot. Rev. 38, 155–197. |A

Behnke, H.-D. (1977). Transmission electron microscopy and systematics of flowering plants. Plant Syst. Evol. Suppl. 1, 155–178. |A

Behnke, H.-D. (1997). Sarcobataceae — a new family of Caryophyllales. Taxon 46, 495–507. |T

Boesewinkel, F.D. (1984). Development of ovule and seed coat in Cneorum tricoccon L. (Cneoraceae). Acta Bot. Neerl. 33, 61–70. |T

Boesewinkel, F.D. (1985). Development of ovule and seed-coat in Averrhoa (Oxalidaceae) with notes on some related genera. Acta Bot. Neerl. 34, 413–424. |T

Boesewinkel, F.D. (1987). Ovules and seeds of Trigoniaceae. Acta Bot. Neerlandica 36, 81–91. |T

Boesewinkel, F.D. (1988). The seed structure and taxonomic relationships of Hypseocharis Remy. Acta Bot. Neerl. 37, 111–120. |T

Boesewinkel, F.D. (1994). Ovule and seed characters of Balanites aegyptiaca and the classification of the Linales-Geraniales-Polygalales assembly. Acta Bot. Neerl. 43, 15–25. |T

Bohm, B.A., Chalmers, G. and Bhat, U.G. (1988). Flavonoids and the relationship of Itea to the Saxifragaceae. Phytochemistry 27, 2651–2653. |T

Bonpland, A., Humboldt, A. von and Kunth, K.S. (1815-1825). Nova genera et species plantarum. Lutetiae Parisiorum: sumtibus Librariae Graeco-Latino-Germanico. |I

Borchers, E., Frey, W. and Hilger, H.H. (1982). C4 species in the highlands of Iran and Afghanistan. Notes RBG Edinb. 40, 99–113. |PP

Bremer, B. (1996). Combined and separate analyses of morphological and molecular data in the plant family Rubiaceae. Cladistics 12, 21–40. |T

Brewbaker, J.L. (1967). The distribution and phylogenetic significance of binucleate and trinucleate pollen grains in the Angiosperms. Amer. J. Bot. 54, 1069–1083. |CY

Bouman, F. (1995). Seed structure and systematics in Dioscoreales. In Rudall, P.J. et al. (Editors), ‘Monocotyledons: systematics and evolution’, 139–156. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Bouman, F. and Devente, N. (1992). A comparison of the structure of ovules and seeds in Stemona (Stemonaceae) and Pentastemona (Pentastemonaceae). Blumea 36, 501–504. |T

Bouman, F. and Meijer, W. (1994). Comparative structure of ovules and seeds in Rafflesiaceae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 193, 187–212. |T

Brouwer, Y.M. and Clifford, H.T. (1990). An annotated list of domatia-bearing species. Notes from the Jodrell Laboratory XII, 1–50. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. |M

Bruhl, J.J. (1990). Taxonomic relationships and photosynthetic pathways in the Cyperaceae. Ph.D. thesis, Australian National University, Canberra. |T

Bruhl, J.J., Watson, L. and Dallwitz, M.J. (1992). The genera of Cyperaceae: interactive identification and information retrieval. Taxon 41, 225–234. |T|S

Bruhl, J.J. (1995). Sedge genera of the World: Relationships and a new classification of Cyperaceae. Australian Systematic Botany 8, 125–305. |T

Cantino, P.D., Harley, R.M., and Wagstaff, S.J. (1992). Genera of Labiatae: status and classification. In R.M. Harley and T. Reynolds (Eds.), ‘Advances in Labiate Science’, Appendix, pp. 511–524. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, U.K. |T

Carolin, R.C., Jacobs, S.W.L. and Vesk, M. (1975). Leaf structure in Chenopodiaceae. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 95, 226–255. |PP

Carolin, R.C., Jacobs, S.W.L. and Vesk, M. (1978). Kranz cells and mesophyll in the Chenopodiales. Aust. J. Bot. 26, 683–698. |PP

Carolin, R.C., Jacobs, S.W.L. and Vesk, M. (1982). The chlorenchyma of some members of the Salicornieae (Chenopodiaceae). Aust. J. Bot. 30, 387–392. |PP

Carlquist, S. (1988). Comparative Wood Anatomy. Springer-Verlag, New York. |A

Carlquist, S. (1991). Wood and bark anatomy of Ticodendron: comments on its relationships. Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 78, 97–104. |T

Carlquist, S. (1996). Wood anatomy of Akaniaceae and Bretschneideraceae: a case of near-identity and its systematic implications. Systematic Botany 21, 607–616. |T

Carpenter, C.S. and Dickison, W.C. (1976). The morphology and relationships of Oncotheca balansae. Bot. Gaz. 137, 141–153. |T

Chase, M.W. et al. (1993). Phylogenetics of seed plants: an analysis of nucleotide sequences from the plastid gene rbcL. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 80, 528–580. |C

Chase, M.W. and Reveal, J.L. (2009). A phylogenetic classification of the land plants to accompany APG III. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161, 122–127. |CL

Chase, M.W., Reveal, J.L. and Fay, M.F. (2009). A subfamilial classification for the expanded asparagalean families Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae and Xanthorrhoeaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 161, 132-136. |CL

Chase, M.W., Rudall, P.J., and Conran, J.G. (1996). New circumscriptions and a new family of asparagoid lilies: genera formerly included in Anthericaceae. Kew Bull. 51, 667–680. |T

Chase, M.W., Rudall, P.J., Fay, M.F. and Stobart, K.L. (2000). Xeronemataceae, a new family of asparagoid lilies from New Caledonia and New Zealand. Kew Bulletin 55, 865–870. |T

Cheadle, V.I. (1953). Independent origin of vessels in the Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons. Phytomorphology 3, 23–44. |A

Chen, T.M., Brown, R.H. and Black, C.C. (1970). CO2 compensation concentration, rate of photosynthesis, and carbonic anhydrase activity of plants. Weed Science 18, 399–403. |PP

Chenery, E.M. (1948). Aluminium in the plant world, parts I and II. Kew Bull. 1948, 173–182 and 463–473. |PH

Chenery, E.M. and Sporne, K.R. (1976). A note on the evolutionary status of aluminium-accumulators among Dicotyledons. New Phytol. 76, 551–554. |PH

Chittenden, F.J. (1951). Dictionary of Gardening, 4 vols. (Royal Horticultural Society.) Clarendon, Oxford. |M|I|N

Clifford, H.T. (1983–1989). Extensive unpublished original observations on seedling germination. |M

Conran, J.G. (1993). Comrehensive phytogeographical data on the Monocot families, recorded in terms of Takhtajan’s Kingdoms, Subkingdoms and Regions (personal communication). |M

Conran, J.G., Chase, M.W., and Rudall, P.J. (1997). Two new monocotyledon families: Anemarrhenaceae and Behniaceae (Lilianae: Asparagales). Kew Bulletin 52, 995–999. |T

Cronquist, A. (1981). An integrated system of classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia University Press, New York. |CL|M

Cronquist, A. (1988). The evolution and classification of Flowering Plants (Second Edition). New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. |CL

Cuatrecasas, J. (1961). A taxonomic revision of the Humiriaceae. Contr. U.S. National Herbarium 35, Part 2, 25–214. |T

Curtis, J. (1824–1834). British Entomology, vols. 1–12. London. |I

Curtis, W. (1788). The Botanical Magazine, vol. 2. Couchman and Fry, London. |I

Curtis, W. (1790–1800). The Botanical Magazine, vols. 1 and 3–14. Downloadable scans from The Biodiversity Library. www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/8148. |I

Cutler, D.F. and Airy Shaw, H.K. (1965). Anarthriaceae and Ecdeiocoleaceae: two new monocotyledonous families, separated from the Restionaceae. Kew Bull. 19, 489–499. |T

Czaja, A.Th. (1978). Structure of starch grains and the classification of vascular plant families. Taxon 27, 463–470. |A

Dahlgren, R.M.T. (1980). A revised system of classification of the Angiosperms. Bot J. Linn. Soc. 80, 91–124. |CL

Dahlgren, R.M.T. and Clifford, H.T. (1982). The Monocotyledons: a comparative study. Academic Press, London. |A|M

Dahlgren R.M.T., Clifford, H.T. and Yeo, P.F. (1985). The families of the Monocotyledons: structure, evolution and taxonomy. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. |A|CL|M

Dallwitz, M.J. (1974). A flexible computer program for generating identification keys. Syst. Zool. 23, 50–7. |S

Dallwitz, M.J. (1980). A general system for coding taxonomic descriptions. Taxon 29, 41–6. |S

Dallwitz, M.J. (1984). Automatic typesetting of computer-generated keys and descriptions. In Databases in Systematics, Systematics Association Special Volume No. 26, pp. 279–90. (Eds R. Allkin and F.A. Bisby.) (Academic Press: London.) |S

Dallwitz, M.J. (1988a). Representation of extreme and normal values in DELTA. DELTA Newsletter 1, 3. delta-intkey.com |S

Dallwitz, M.J. (1988b). Notes on INTKEY. DELTA Newsletter 2, 3–4. delta-intkey.com |S

Dallwitz, M.J. (1989a). Diagnostic descriptions from INTKEY and CONFOR. DELTA Newsletter 3, 8–13. delta-intkey.com |S

Dallwitz, M.J. (1989b). Diagnostic descriptions for groups of taxa. DELTA Newsletter 4, 8–13. delta-intkey.com |S

Dallwitz, M.J. (1992). DELTA and INTKEY. In Proceedings of Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Modern Computer Methods for Systematic Studies in Biology, ed. R. Fortuner. University of California: Davis. |S

Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A., and Zurcher, E.J. (1993 onwards). ‘User’s Guide to the DELTA System: a General System for Processing Taxonomic Descriptions.’ 4th edition. delta-intkey.com |S

Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A., and Zurcher, E.J. (1995 onwards). ‘User’s Guide to Intkey: a Program for Interactive Identification and Information Retrieval.’ 1st edition. http://delta-intkey.com |S

Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A., and Zurcher, E.J. (1998). Interactive keys. In ‘Information Technology, Plant Pathology and Biodiversity’, pp. 201–212. (Eds P. Bridge, P. Jeffries, D.R. Morse, and P.R. Scott.) (CAB International: Wallingford.) |S

Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A., and Zurcher, E.J. (1999 onwards). User’s guide to the DELTA Editor. http://delta-intkey.com |S

Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A. and Zurcher, E.J. (2000 onwards). Principles of interactive keys. delta-intkey.com |S

Dallwitz, M.J., Paine, T.A., and Zurcher, E.J. (2002 onwards). Interactive identification using the Internet. delta-intkey.com |S

Dallwitz, M.J. and Zurcher, E.J. (1988). User’s Guide to TYPSET: a Computer Typesetting Program. 2nd edition. CSIRO Aust. Div. Entomol. Rep. No. 18, 1–28. |S

Damtoft, S., Jensen, S.R. and Nielsen, B.J. (1993). Iridoid glucosides in Epacridaceae. Phytochemistry 33, 377–378. |T

Darwin, C. (1882). The movements and habits of climbing plants. 208 pp. John Murray, London.

Davis, J.I. (1995). A phylogenetic structure for the Monocotyledons as inferred from chloroplast DNA restriction site variation, and a comparison of measures of clade support. Systematic Botany 20, 503–527. |CL

Davis, G.L. (1966). Systematic embryology of the Angiosperms. John Wiley, New York. |E

Davis, P.H. and Cullen, J. (1981). The identification of flowering plant families. Including a key to those native and cultivated in north temperate regions. (Second edition.) 113 pp. Cambridge University Press. |M|G

De Bary, A. (1884). Comparative anatomy of the vegetative organs of the Phanerogams and Ferns. Translated and annotated by F.O. Bower and D.H. Scott. Clarendon Press, Oxford. |A|I

Dickison, W.C. and Baas, P. (1977). The morphology and relationships of Paracryphia (Paracryphiaceae). Blumea 23, 417–438. |T

Dickison, W.C. and Miller, R.B. (1993). Morphology and anatomy of Physena (Physenaceae). Adansonia series 4 (15), 85–106. |T

Dickison, W.C. (1990a). The morphology and relationships of Medusagyne (Medusagynaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 171, 27–55.

Dickison, W.C. (1990b). An additional note on the floral morphology and affinities of Medudagyne oppositifolia (Medusagynaceae). Brittonia 42, 191–196. |T

Doweld, A.B. (1998). Carpology, seed anatomy and taxonomic relationships of Tetracentron (Tetracentraceae) and Trochodendron (Trochodendraceae). Annals of Botany 82, 413–443. |T

Downton, W.J.S. (1975). The occurrence of C4 photosynthesis among plants. Photosynthetica 9, 96–105. |PP

Duyfjes, B.E.E. (1992). Formal description of the family Pentastemonaceae, with some additional notes on Pentastemonaceae and Stemonaceae. Blumea 36, 551–552. |T

Edwards, G.E. and Ku, M.S.B. (1987). Biochemistry of C3-C4 intermediates. In Hatch, M.D. and Boardman, N.K. (eds.), The Biochemistry of Plants, vol. 10, 275–325. |PP

Edwards, Sydenham (1815-1828). The Botanical Register, 14 volumes. Continued (1829-1847) as The Botanical Register or Ornamental Flower Garden, 19 volumes authored and/or edited by John Lindley and James Ridgway. Downloadable scans from The Biodiversity Library. www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/8148. |I

El-Gazzar, A. and Watson, L. (1970). A taxonomic study of Labiatae and related genera. New Phytol. 69, 451–486. |T

Ellis, A. and Midgely, J. (1996). (On the mechanism of ‘carnivory’ in Roridula.) Oecologia 106, 478. |T

Endress, P.K. (1989). Aspects of evolutionary differentiation of the Hamamelidaceae and the Lower Hamamelididae. Pl. Syst. Evol. 162, 193–211. |T

Endress, P.K. (1989). A suprageneric classification of the Hamamelidaceae. Taxon 38, 371–376. |T

Endress, P.K. and Hufford, L.D. (1989). The diversity of stamen structures and dehiscence patterns among Magnoliidae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 100, 45–85. |T

Endress, P.K. and Stumpf, S. (1991). The diversity of stamen structures in ‘Lower’ Rosidae (Rosales, Fabales, Proteales, Sapindales). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 107, 217–293. |T

Engler, A. and Prantl, K.A.E. (1887–1915, 1925–). Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, editions 1 and 2. Leipzig and Berlin. (Taxonomic descriptions used directly for only a few families.) |M|I

Erdtman, G. (1945). Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. IV. Labiatae, Verbenaceae and Avicenniaceae. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 39, 279–285. |T

Erdtman, G. (1966). Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. Angiosperms. (An introduction to palynology. I.) Hafner Publishing Co., London. |PO

Estelita-Teixeira, M.E. and Handro, W. (1983). Leaf ultrastructure in species of Gomphrena and Pfaffia (Amaranthaceae). Can. J. Bot. 62, 812–817. |PP

Eyde, R.H. (1988). Comprehending Cornus: puzzles and progress in the systematics of the dogwoods. Botanical Review 54, 234–351. |T

Fay, M.F., Bayer, C., Alverson, W.S., de Bruijin, A.Y. and Chase. M.W. (1998). Plastid rbcL sequence data indicate a close affinity between Diegodendron and Bixa. Taxon 47, 43–50. |T

Fay, M.F. and Chase, M.W. (1996). Resurrection of Themidaceae for the Brodiaea alliance, and recircumscription of Alliaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Agapanthoideae. Taxon 45, 441–451. |T

Fay, M.F., Swensen, S.M., and Chase, M.W. (1996). Taxonomic affinities of Medusagyne oppositifolia (Medusagynaceae). Kew Bulletin 52, 111–120. |T

Fernando, E.S. and Quinn, C.J. (1995). Picramniaceae, a new family, and a recircumscription of Simaroubaceae. Taxon 44, 177–181. |T

Florabase: the Western Australian Flora. Web site of the Western Australian Herbarium. florabase.dec.wa.gov.au |N

Franks, J.W. and Watson, L. (1963). The pollen morphology of some critical Ericales. Pollen et Spores 5, 51-68. |T

Frey, W. and Kürschner, H. (1983). Photosyntheseweg und Zonierung von Halophyten an Salzeen in der Tükei, in Jordanien, und im Iran. Flora 173, 293–310. |PP

Frost, F.H. (1930a). Specialization in secondary xylem of dicotyledons. I. Origin of vessel. Bot. Gaz. 89, 67–94. |A

Frost, F.H. (1930b). Specialization in secondary xylem of dicotyledons. II. Evolution of end wall of vessel segment. Bot. Gaz. 90, 198–212. |A

Gadek, P.A., Fernando, E.S., Quinn, C.J., Hoot, S.B., Terrazas, T., Sheahan, M.C. and Chase, M.W. (1996). Sapindales: molecular delimitation and infraordinal groups. American J. Bot. 83, 802–811. |CL

Gadek, P.A., Quinn, C.J., Rodman, J.E., Karol, K.G., Conti, E., Price, R.A. and Fernando, E.S. (1992). Affinities of the Australian endemic Akaniaceae: new evidence from rbcL sequences. Aust. Syst. Bot. 5, 717–724. |T

Geesink, R., Leeuwenberg, A.J.M., Ridsdale. C.E and Veldkamp, J.F. (1981). Thonner’s analytical key to the families of flowering plants. Leiden University Press, The Hague. (Not used as a data source, but helpful in checking descriptions.) |M|G

George, A.S. (Ed.) et al. (1982–). Flora of Australia. Bureau of Flora and Fauna, Canberra. Australian Government Printing Service. (As yet only Vols. 4, 8, 28 and 45 extensively pursued for data.) |T

Gibbs, R.D. (1974). Chemotaxonomy of Flowering Plants, Vols. 1–4. McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal & London. (With copious phytochemical data, including original observations complete with ‘negatives’.) |PH

Gilmore, J. (1946). British Botanists. Collins, London. |Q

Gómez-Laurito, J. and Gómez, L.D.P. (1989). Ticodendron: a new tree from central America. Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 76, 1148–1151. |T

Gómez-Laurito, J. and Gómez, P.L.D. (1991). Ticodendraceae: a new family of Flowering Plants. Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 78, 87–88. |T

Graham, S.A. (1984). Alzateaceae, a new family of Myrtales in the American tropics. Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 71, 757–779. |T

Grayum, M.H. (1987). A summary of evidence and arguments supporting the removal of Acorus from the Araceae. Taxon 36, 723–729. |T

Grindon, L.H. (1883). The Shakespere Flora. Palmer and Howe, Manchester. |Q

Gunn, C.R., Wiersema, J.H., Ritchie, C.A. and Kirkbride, J.H. (1992). Families and Genera of Spermatophytes recognized by the Agricultural Research Service. U.S.D.A. Agricultural Research Service Technical Bulletin 1796. 500pp. See Wiersema (1997) for WWW updates. |N|T

Ham, R.W.J.M. van der, Baas, P., Bakker, M.E., Boesewinkel, F.D., Bouman, F., van Heuven, B.J. and Klaassen, R.K.W.M. (1995). Bottegoa Chiov. transferred to the Ptaeroxylaceae. Kew Bull. 50, 243–265. |T

Harris, J.G. and Harris, M.W. (1994). Plant Identification Terminology. An illustrated glossary. Spring Lake Publishing, Utah. |G

Hawkes, J.G., Lester, R.N. and Skelding, A.D. (editors) (1979). The Biology and Taxonomy of the Solanaceae. Academic Press, London. |T

Heel, W.A. Van (1966). Anatomical and ontogenetic investigations on the morphology of the flowers and fruit of Scyphostegia borneensis Stapf (Scyphostegiaceae). Blumea 15, 107–125. |T

Heel, W.A. Van (1992). Floral morphology of Stemonaceae and Pentastemonaceae. Blumea 36, 481–499. |T

Hegnauer, R. (1977). Cyanogenic compounds as systematic markers in Tracheophyta. Plant Syst. Evol. Suppl. 1, 191–209. |PH

Henderson, R.J.F. (1987). Blandfordia. In George, A.S. (ed), Flora of Australia vol. 45, 175–178. Bureau of Flora and Fauna, Canberra. Australian Government Publishing Service. |T

Heo, K., Van Der Werff, H., and Tobe, H. (1998). Embryology and relationships of Lauraceae (Laurales). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 126, 295–322. |E

Heslop-Harrison, Y. and Shivanna,K.R. (1977). The receptive surface of the angiosperm stigma. Ann, Bot. 41, 1233–2258. |A

Heywood, V.H. (editor) (1971). The Biology and Chemistry of the Umbelliferae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. Suppl. 1. Academic Press, London. |T

Heywood, V.H. (editor) (1978). Flowering plants of the world. Oxford University Press. |M

Heywood, V.H., Harborne, J.B. and Turner, B.L. (editors) (1977). The Biology and Chemistry of the Compositae. Academic Press, London. |T

Hiroshi, T. and Raven, P.H. (1984). The embryology and relationships of Rhynchocalyx Oliv. (Rhyncocalycaceae). Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 71, 836–843. |T

Hooker, J.D. (1844, 1853 and 1860). The botany of the Antarctic voyage of H.M. Discovery ships Erebus and Terror in the years 1839 to 1843, vols. I-III. Comprising Vol I (1844): Introduction, and 'The flora of Antarctica'; Vol. II (1853), 'Flora of New Zealand'; and vol. III (1860), comprising 'Flora Tasmaniae', Angiosperms (part 1), Acotyledons and Monocotyledons (part 2). Reeve, London. |I

Hooker, J.D. (1855). Illustrations of Himalayan plants (the plates executed by W.H. Fitch). L. Reeve. |I

Hooker, William Jackson, subsequently Hooker, Joseph Dalton, et al: editors, 1837-1922). Icones plantarum or figures, with brief descriptive characters and remarks, of new or rare plants, selected from the author's herbarium, volumes 1-31. London :Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, & Longman, etc. |I

Hough, R.A. and Wetzel, R.G. (1977). Photosynthetic pathways of some aquatic plants. Aquatic Botany 3, 297–313. |PP

Hutchinson, J. (1959). The families of flowering plants, vols. I and II (second edition). Clarendon Press, Oxford. |M

Hutchinson, J. (1968). Key to the families of Flowering Plants of the World. 117 pp. Clarendon, Oxford. |G|M

Hutchinson, J. and Dalziel, J.M. (1954). Glossary of botanical terms. Reprinted from The Flora of West Tropical Africa, revised by R.W.J. Keay. Crown Agents, London. |G

Hooker, William Jackson, subsequently Hooker, Joseph Dalton, et al: editors, 1837–1922). Icones plantarum or figures, with brief descriptive characters and remarks, of new or rare plants, selected from the author's herbarium, volumes 1–31. London :Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, & Longman, etc. |I

Iltis, H.H. (1999). Setchellanthaceae (Capparales), a new family for a relictual, glucosinolate-producing endemic of the Mexican deserts. Taxon 48, 257–275 (plus supporting articles, pp. 277–324). |T

Imbamba, S.K. and Papa, G. (1979). Distribution of the Kranz type anatomy in some dicotyledonous families of Kenya. Photosynthetica 13, 315–322. |PP

Jackson, B.D. (1928). A glossary of botanic terms, with their derivation and accent (fourth edition). Hafner Publishing Co. Inc., New York. |G

Jansen, S., Baas, P., and Smets, E. (2000). Vestured pits in Malvales s.l.: a charactrer with taxonomic significance hidden in the secondary xylem. Taxon 49, 169– 182. |AT

Jeffrey, C. (1980). A review of the Cucurbitaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 81, 233–247. |T

Jensen, H.W.F., Jensen, S.R. and Nielsen, B.J. (1988). Phytochemistry 27, 2581–2589. (Iridoids) |PH

Jensen, S.R. (1996). Unpublished data on iridoids and verbascosides, and other advice re these compounds. |PH

Jensen, S.R. (1991). Plant iridoids, their biosynthesis and distribution in angiosperms. In J.B. Harborne and F.A. Tomas-Barberan (eds.), Ecological chemistry and biochemistry of plant terpenoids. Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe. Clarendon Press, Oxford. |PH

Jensen, S.R. (1992). Systematic implications of the distribution of iridoids and other chemical compounds in the Loganiaceae and other families of the Asteridae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79, 284–302. (With original and compiled data on iridoids, verbascosides, arthroquinones and cornoside.) |PH

Jensen, S.R. and Nielsen, B.J. (1980). Phytochemistry 19, 2685–2688. (Iridoids) |PH

Jensen, S.R., Nielsen, B.J. and Dahlgren, R. (1975). Iridoid compounds, their occurrence and systematic importance in the Angiosperms. Bot. Not. 128, 148–180. |PH

Johri, B.M. (1970) (ed.). Comparative embryology of the Angiosperms. Bull. Indian National Science Academy 41. Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi. |E

Johri, B.M. (ed) (1984). Embryology of Angiosperms. Springer-Verlag, New York. |E

Johnson, L.A.S. (1957). A review of the family Oleaceae. Contr. N.S.W. National Herbarium 2, 397–418. |T

Johnson, L.A.S. and Briggs, B.G. (1975). On the Proteaceae — the evolution and classification of a southern family. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 70, 83–182. |T

Juncosa, A.M. and Tomlinson, P.B. (1988). A historical and taxonomic synopsis of Rhizophoraceae and Anisophyllaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75, 1278–1295. |T

Junell, S. (1934). Zur Gynaceummorphologie und Systematik der Verbenaceen und Labiaten. Symb. Bot. Upsal. 4, 1–219. |T

Kadereit, J.W., Blattner, F.R., Jork, K.B. and Shwarzbach, A. (1994). Phylogenetic analysis of Papaveraceae s.l. (incl. Fumariaceae, Hypecoaceae, and Pteridophyllum) based on morphological characters. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 116, 361–390. (Table 3, comprising the data subjected to ‘phylogenetic analysis’, awards spurious character states to inapplicables, and also contains gross errors — e.g. a taxon combining ‘neither laticifers nor laticiferous idioblasts’ with ‘watery latex’, and another awarded a rhizome character state that according to Table 2 does not exist.) |T

Kallersjo, M., Bergqvist, G. and Anderberg, A.A. (2000). Generic re-alignments in primuloid families of the Ericales s.l. (Angiosperms); a phylogenetic analysis based on DNA sequences from three chloroplast genes and morphology. Amer. J. Bot. 87 (in press: not seen).

Khac, D.D., Tran-Van, S., Campos, M., Lallemand, J.-Y., and Fetozon, M. (1990). Phytochemistry 29, 251–256. (Iridoids) |PH

Kjaer, A. (1973). The natural distribution of glucosinolates: a uniform group of sulfur-containing glucosides. Nobel 25, 229–234. (Mustard oils.) |PH

Kooiman, P. (1960). On the occurrence of amyloids in plant seeds. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 9, 208–219. |PH

Kooiman, P. (1975). The occurrence of iridoid glycosides in the Verbenaceae. Acta Bot. Neerl. 24, 459–468. |PH

Krenzer, E.G., Moss, D.N. and Crookston, R.K. (1975). Carbon dioxide compensation points of flowering plants. Plant Physiol. 56, 194–206. |PP

Kubitzki, K. (ed.) (1993). ‘The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants’, Vol. II. Flowering Plants, Dicotyledons: Magnoliid, Hamamelid and Caryophyllid Families. Springer-Verlag, New York. |T

Kuijt, J. (1968). Mutual affinities of the santalalean families. Brittonia 20, 136–147. (Includes description of Eremolepidaceae) |T

Ladd, P.G. (1994). Pollen presenters in the flowering plants — form and function. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 115, 165–195. |M

Lammers, T.G., Stuessy, T.F and Silva O., M. (1986). Systematic relationships of the Lactoridaceae, an endemic family of the Juan Fernandez Islands, Chile. Pl. Syst. Evol 152, 243–266. |T

Lawrence, G.H.M. (1951). Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. Macmillan, New York. |G|M

Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. (1997). Amusing superficiality of orthodox cladists. Taxon 46, 535–537. |T|C

Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. (ed.) (1980). Loganiaceae. In: Engler, A. and Prantl, K. (ed.), ‘Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien’, ed. 2, 28(1). Berlin. |C|T

Le Maout, E. and Decaisne, J. (1873). A general system of Botany, descriptive and analytical (English translation by Mrs Hooker, with additional material by J.D. Hooker. Illustrations by L. Steinheil and A. Riocreux). Longmans, Green and Co., London. |M|I

Léonard, J. (1950). Lepidobotrys Engl., type d’une famille nouvelle de Spermatophytes: les Lepidobotryaceae. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 96, 31–40. |T

Leroy, Jean-F. (1983). The origin of Angiosperms: an unrecognized ancestral Dicotyledon, Hedyosmum (Chloranthales), with a strobiloid flower is living today. Taxon 32, 169–175. |T

Les, D.H. (1993). Ceratophyllaceae. In Kubitzki, K. (ed.), ‘The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants’, Vol. II, pp. 246–250. Springer-Verlag, New York. |T

Li, H.L. and Willaman,J.J (1967). Distribution of alkaloids in Angiosperm phylogeny. Economic Botany 22, 240–251. |PH

Linder, H.P. and Ferguson, I.K. (1985). On the pollen morphology and phylogeny of the Restionales and Poales. Grana 24, 65–76. |T

Lindley, J. (1853). The vegetable kingdom: the structure, classification and uses of plants (third edition). Bradbury and Evans, London. |M|I

Loizeau, P.-A. (1995). Les Aquifoliaceae péruviennes. Boissiera 48, 9–307. |T

Mabberley, D.J. (1989). The Plant-book: a portable dictionary of the higher plants. Cambridge University Press. |M

MacFarlane, T.D. and Conran, J.G. (2016). Tepal apex trichomes, specialised bud closure structures and their systematic value in Asparagales. |T

Maguire, B. and Pires, J.M. (1978). Saccifoliaceae, a new monotypic family of the Gentianales. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 29, 230–245. |T

Manning, J.C. and Brits, G.J. (1993). Seed coat development in Leucospermum cordifolium (Knight) Fourcade (Proteaceae) and a clarification of seed covering structures in Proteaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 112 139–148. |T

Marchant, N.G., et al. (1987). Flora of the Perth Region. Part 1 and 2. Western Australian Herbarium: South Perth. |T

Martin, C.E., Lubbers, A.E. and Teeri, J.A. (1982). Variability in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism: a survey of North Carolina succulent species. Bot. Gaz.. 143, 491–497. |PP

Martinez, E. and Ramos, H.R. (1989). Lacadoniaceae (Triuridales): una nueva familia de Mexico. Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 76, 128–135. |T

Martius, C.F.P. de, et al. (1870-1906). Flora Brasiliensis. Volumes 1-50. Berlin. |I

Márquez-Guzmán, J., Engelman, M., Martinez-Mena, A., Martinez, E. and Ramos, C. (1989). Anatomia reproductiva de Lacadonia schismatica (Lacadoniaceae). Ann. Miss. Bit. Gard. 76, 124–127. |T

Matthew, K.M. (1976). A revision of the genus Mastixia (Cornaceae). Blumea 23, 51–93. |T

Mcusker, A. (1981). ‘Glossary’, in Flora of Australia, Vol. 1, pp. 169–200. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra. |G

Melville, R. (1982). The affinity of Paeonia and a second genus of the Paeoniaceae. Kew Bull. 38, 87–105. |T

Metcalfe, C.R. (1956). Scyphostegia borneensis Stapf. Anatomy of stem and leaf in relation to ite taxonomic position. Reinwardtia 4, 99–104. |T

Metcalfe, C.R. (1966). Distribution of latex in the plant kingdom. Notes from the Jodrell Laboratory, III, 1–18. (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.) |A|PH

Metcalfe, C.R. and Chalk, L. (1950). Anatomy of the Dicotyledons, vols. I and II. Clarendon, Oxford. |A

Metcalfe, C.R. and Chalk, L. (1979). Anatomy of the Dicotyledons (Second Edition), vol.1. Clarendon, Oxford. |A

Mooney, H.A., Troughton, J.H. and Berry, J.A. (1977). Carbon isotope ratio measurements of succulent plants in southern Africa. Oecologia 30, 295–305. |PP

Moore, L.B. (1957). The species of Xeronema (Liliaceae). Pacific Science 11, 355-362. |T

Morley, B.D. and Toelken, H.R. (editors) (1983). Flowering plants in Australia. Rigby, Adelaide. |M Morton, C.M., Prance, G.T., Scott, A.M., and Thorburn, L.G. (1998). Recircumscription of Lecythidaceae. Taxon 47, 817–827. |CL|T

Nowicke, J.W. (1996). Pollen morphology, exine structure and the relationships of Basellaceae and Didiereaceae to Portulaceae. Systematic Botany 21, 187–208. |T

Ode, D.J., Tieszen, L.L. and Lerman, J.C. (1980). The seasonal contribution of C3 and C4 plant species to primary production in a mixed prairie. Ecology 61, 1304–1311. (Data on anatomical designations of photosynthetic pathways obtained from information associated with this publication, provided by the authors.) |PP

Olmstead, R.G. and Reeves, P.A. (1995). Evidence for the polyphyly of the Scrophulariaceae based on chloroplast rbcL and ndhF sequences. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 82, 176–193. |CL

Osmond, C.B. (1974). Leaf anatomy of Australian saltbushes in relation to photosynthetic pathways. Aust. J. Bot. 22, 39–44. |PP

Pate, J.S. and Gunning, B.E.S. (1969). Vascular transfer cells in angiosperm leaves: a taxonomic and morphological survey. Protoplasma 68, 135–156. |A

Pate, J.S. and Gunning, B.E.S. (1975). Extensive unpublished records of presence/absence of leaf phloem transfer cells (c.f. Pate and Gunning 1969). |A

Pathan, S.N. and Nimbalkar, J.D. (1982). Photosynthesis in Alternanthera (Amaranthaceae) species differing in carbon dioxide fixation pathways. Photosynthetica 16, 119–122. |PP

Peng, C.-I, Tobe, H. and Takahashi, M. (1995). Reproductive morphology and relationships of Triplostegia (Dipsacales). Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 116, 505–516. |T

Pennington, T.D. and Styles, B.T. (1975). A generic monograph of the Meliaceae. Blumea 22, 419–540. |T

Philipson, W.R. (1967). Griselinia Forst. Fil. — anomaly or link. New Zealand J. Bot. 5, 134–165. |T

Philipson, W.R. and Skipworth, J.P. (1961). Hectorellaceae: a new family of Dicotyledons. Royal Soc. N.Z. 88, no 4. |T

Philipson, W.R., Stone, B.C., Butterfield, B.G., Tseng, C.C., Jensen, S.R., Nielsen, B.J., Bate-Smith, E.C. and Fairbrothers, D.E. (1980). The systematic position of Aralidium Miq. — a multidisciplinary study. Taxon 29, 391–416. |T

Polhill, R.M. and Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1981). Advances in Legume systematics, Parts I and II. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. |T

Prakash, N., Shen, T.C., Yap, K.C. and Yim, K.M. (1976). A survey of the leaf structure and its relationship to the photosynthetic pathways in certain Malaysian plants. Malaysian J. Sci. 4(A), 67–73. |PP

Pratt, Ann (1857). Wild Flowers, vols. I and II. Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, London. |Q

Radford, A.E., Dickison, W.C., Massey, J.R. and Bell, C.R. (1974). Vascular Plant Systematics. Harper and Row, New York. |G

Raghavendra, A.S. and Das, V.S.R. (1976). Distribution of the C4 dicarboxylic acid pathway of photosynthesis in local monocotyledonous plants and its taxonomic significance. New Phytol. 76, 301–305. |PP

Raghavendra, A.S. and Das, V.S.R. (1978). The occurrence of C4 photosynthesis: a supplementary list of C4 plants reported during late 1944– mid 1977. Photosynthetica 12, 200–208. |PP

Rathnam, C.K.M., Raghavendra, A.S. and Rama Das, V.S. (1976). Diversity in the arrangements of mesophyll cells among leaves of certain C4 dicotyledons in relation to C4 physiology. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 77, 283–291. |PP

Reichenbach, L. and H.G. (1850-1909). Icones florae Germanicae et Helveticae. Lipsiae apud F. Hofmeister. |I

Rendle, A.B. (1930). The classification of flowering plants, vols I and II (second edition). Cambridge University Press. |M

Reveal, J.L. (1997). Behniaceae (Magnoliophyta), a new family of Asteliales. Phytologia 82, 273–274. |T

Reveal, J.L. (2009). USDA-APHIS Concordance of Family names. www.plantsystematics.org/reveal/pbio/usda/usdas.html |CL

Rudall, P.J. (1990). Development of the ovule and megagametophyte in Ecdeiocolea monostachya. Aust. Syst. Bot. 3, 265–277. |T

Rudall, P.J., Cribb, P.J., Cutler, D.F., and Humphries, C.J., editors. (1995). ‘Monocotyledons: systematics and evolution’, vols. I and II. Royal Botanc Gardens, Kew, London. |C|M|T

Rudall, P.J., Chase, M.W., Cutler, D.F., Rusby, J., and De Bruijn, A. (1998). Anatomical and molecular systematics of Asteliaceae and Hypoxidaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 127, 1–42. |T

Rundel, P.W., Rundel, J.A., Ziegler, H. and Stichler, W. (1979). Carbon isotope ratios of central Mexican Crassulaceae in natural and greenhouse environments. Oecologia 38, 45–50. |PP

SANBI, Information Resources. Web site of the South African National Biodiversity Institute. http://www.sanbi.org/frames/infofram.htm |N

Sankhla, N., Ziegler, H., Vyas, O.P., Stichler, W. and Trimborne, P. (1975). Eco-physiological studies of Indian arid zone plants. V. A screening of some species for the C4-pathway of photosynthetic CO2 fixation. Oecologia 21, 123–129. |PP

Saunders, R.M.K. (1998). Monograph of Kadsura (Schisandraceae). American Society of Plant Taxonomists: Systematic Botany Monographs, 54.

Shashikala Kshetrapal, Tanwar T,C. and Usha Jain (1982). On the occurrence of Kranz type of leaf anatomy in certain species of Rajasthan. Nat. Acad. Sci. Letters 5, 39–41. |PP

Sheahan, M.C. and Chase, M.W. (1996). A phylogenetic analysis of Zygophyllaceae R.Br. based on morphological, anatomical and rbcL DNA sequence data. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 122, 279–300. |T

Sheahan, M.C. and Cutler, D.F. (1993). Contribution of vegetative anatomy to the systematics of Zygophyllaceae R.Br. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 113, 227–262. |T

Schmid, R. (1964). Die systematische Stellung der Dioncophyllaceen. Bot. Jahrb. 83, 1–56. |T

Schodde, R. (1970). Two new suprageneric taxa in the Monimiaceae alliance (Laurales). Taxon 19, 324–328. (Siparunaceae, Monomiaceae, Atherospermataceae.) |T

Schonenberger, J. (1999). Floral structure, development and diversity in Thunbergia (Acanthaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 130, 1–36. |T

Scotland, R.W., Endress, P.K. and Lawrence, T.J. (1994). Corolla ontogeny and aestivation in the Acanthaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 114, 49–65. |T

Sinnott, E.W. (1914). Anatomy of the node as an aid in the classification of Angiosperms. Amer. J. Bot. 1, 303–322. |A

Sinnott, E.W. and Bailey, I.W. (1914). Investigations on the phylogeny of the Angiosperms. 3. Nodal anatomy and the morphology of stipules. Amer. J. Bot. 1, 441–453. |A

Smith, B.N. and Epstein, S. (1971). Two categories of 13C/12C ratios for higher plants. Plant Physiol. 47, 380–384. |PP

Smith, B.N. and Turner, B.l. (1975). Distribution of Kranz syndrome among Asteraceae. Amer. J. Bot. 62, 541–545. |PP

Smith, J.A.C. and Winter, K. (1996). Taxonomic distribution of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism. In K. Winter and J.A.C. Smith (Eds.), ‘Crassulacean Acid Metabolism: Biochemistry, Ecophysiology and Evolution’, pp. 427–436. Springer, Berlin. |PP

Solereder, H. (1908). Systematic anatomy of the Dicotyledons. English edition, translated by L.A. Boodle and F.E. Fritsch. 2 volumes, Oxford. |A|I

Sowerby, James, J.T. Boswell Syme (ed.), Mrs Lankester, J.W. Salter, J. de Carle Sowerby and J.E. Sowerby. (1863-1869). English Botany, or Coloured Figures of British Plants, volumes 1-9. Third edition. Robert Hardwicke, London. |I

Sowerby, J.E, Johnson, C. and Johnson, C.P. (1861). British poisonous Plants. Van Voorst, London. |I

Steedman, E.C. (1924–1928). Trees and shrubs of Rhodesia. Parts 1–3. Proc. Rhodesian Scientific Association, 24, 26, 28. |I

Stevens, P.F. (1971). A classification of the Ericaceae: subfamilies and tribes. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 64, 1–53. |T

Struwe, L., Albert, A.A. and Bremer, B. (1994). Cladistics and family level classification of the Gentianales. Cladistics 10, 175–206. |C|T

Swarupanandan, K., Mangaly, J.K., Sonny, T.K., Kishorekumar, K. and Chand Basha, S. (1996). The subfamilial and tribal classification of the family Asclepiadaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 120, 327–369. |T

Szarek, S.R. (1979). The occurrence of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism: a supplementary list during 1976 to 1979. Photosynthetica 13, 467–473. |PP

Szarek, S.R. and Ting, I.P. (1977). The occurrence of Crassulacean Acid Metabolism among plants. Photosynthetica 11, 330–342. |PP

Takhtajan, A.L. (1969). Flowering Plants, Origin and Dispersal. (Translation from the Russian by C. Jeffrey). Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh. |M

Takhtajan, A.L. (1980). Outline of the classification of flowering plants (Magnoliophyta). Bot. Rev. 46, 225–359. |CL

Teerii, J.A. (1982). Carbon isitopes and the evolution of C4 photosynthesis and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism. In Nitecki, M.H. (ed.), Biochemical aspects of evolutionary biology. University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London. |PP

Tirel, C. (1996). Tiliaceae, in Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et de’pendances, vol. 20. Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, New Caledonia. |T

Tirel, C., Jérémie, J. and Lobreau-Callen, D. (1996). Corchorus neocaladonicus (Tiliaceae), véritable identité de l’e’nigmatique Oceanopapaver. Adansonia 18, 35–43. |T

Thomas, J.L. (1960). A monographic study of the Cyrillaceae. Contr. Gray Herbarium of Harvard University 186, 1–114. |T

Thompson, J. (1976). A revision of the genus Tetratheca (Tremandraceae). Telopea 1, 139–215. |T

Thonner, Fr. (1915). The flowering plants of Africa. Dulau & Co. Ltd., London. |I|M

Thornton, R.K.R. (ed.) (1997). John Clare: selected poems. Everyman, London. |Q

Tillich, H.-J. (1995). Seedlings and systematics in Monocotyledons. In Rudall, P.J., Cribb, P.J., Cutler, D.F. and Humphries, C.J. (editors), Monocotyledons: systematics and evolution (vol. 1). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London. |M

Tobe, H. (1991). Reproductive morphology, anatomy and relationships of Ticodendron. Ann Miss. Bot. Gard. 78, 135–142. |T

Tobe, H. and Peng, C.-I. (1990). The embryology and taxonomic relationships of Bretschneidera (Bretschneideraceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 103, 139–152. |T

Tobe, H. and Raven, P.H. (1984). The embryology and relationships of Alzatea Ruiz & Pav. (Alzateaceae, Myrtales). Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 71, 844–852. |T

Tobe, H. and Raven, P.H. (1995). Embryology and relationships of Akania (Akaniaceae). Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 118, 261–274. |T

Tomlinson, P.B. and Smith, A.C. (1970). Joinvilleaceae, a new family of Monocotyledons. Taxon 19, 887–889. |T

Troughton, J.H., Card, K.A. and Hendy, C.H. (1974). Photosynthetic pathways and carbon isotope discrimination by plants. Carnegie Institution Department of Botany Yearbook 73, 768–780. |PP

Vaughan, J.G., Macleod, A.J. and Jones, B.M.G. (editors) (1976). The Biology and Chemistry of the Cruciferae. Academic Press, London. |T

Venturelli, M. and Bouman, F. (1986). Embryology and seed development in Mayaca fluviatilis (Mayacaceae). Acta Bot. Neerl. 35, 497–516. |T

Wagner, P. (1977). Vessel types of the Monocotyledons: a survey. Bot. Notiser 130, 383–402. |A

Walters, S.M. (1961). The shaping of Angiosperm taxonomy. New Phytol. 60,74-84. |T

Watson, L. (1967). Taxonomic implications of a comparative anatomical study of Epacridaceae. New Phytol. 66, 495–504. |T

Watson, L. and Bell, E.M.(1975). A surface-structural survey of some taxonomically diverse grass pollens. Aust. J. Bot. 23, 981–990. |P|O

Watson, L., Gibbs Russell, G.E. and Dallwitz, M.J. (1989). Grass genera of southern Africa: interactive identification and information retrieval from an automated data bank. S. Afr. J. Bot. 55, 452–63. |S

Watson, L. and Dallwitz, M.J. (1983). The Genera of Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae: Anatomy, Morphology, Classification and Keys (95 pages). Research School of Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra. |T

Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. (1991). The families of angiosperms: automated descriptions, with interactive identification and information retrieval. Aust. Syst. Bot. 4, 681–95. |H|S

Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. (1992 onwards). ‘Grass Genera of the World: Descriptions, Illustrations, Identification, and Information Retrieval; including Synonyms, Morphology, Anatomy, Physiology, Cytology, Classification, Pathogens, World and Local Distribution, and References.’ http://delta-intkey.com |H|T

Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. (1994). ‘The Families of Flowering Plants.’ CD-ROM, Version 1.0 for MS-DOS. (CSIRO Publications: Melbourne.) |H|I|S

Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. (1994). The Grass Genera of the World. 2nd edition. 1081 pp. CAB International, Wallingford. |T|S

Watson, L., Williams, W.T. and Lance, G.N. (1967). A mixed-data numerical approach to angiosperm taxonomy: the classification of Ericales. Proc. Linn. Soc. Lond. 178, 25–35. |T

Webb, L.J. (1954). Aluminium accumulation in the Australian-New Guinea flora. Aust. J. Bot. 2, 176–196. |PH

Wheeler, J.R., et al. (1992). Flora of the Kimberley Region. Western Australian Herbarium: South Perth. |T

Wiersema, J.H. (1997). Families and Genera in GRIN (Germplasm Information Resources Network, U.S.D.A., Agricultural Research Service. Accessible at http://www.ars-grin.gov/npgs/tax/taxfam.html). |N|T

Wight, R. 1840 and 1850. Illustrations of Indian botany: or figures illustrative of each of the natural orders of Indian plants, described in the author's prodromus florae peninsulae Indiae orientalis. J.B. Pharoah, Madras. Downloadable scans from The Biodiversity Library. www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/8148. |I

Wight, R. (1840-1853). Icones plantarum Indiae Orientalis: or figures of Indian plants, vols. 1-6. J.B. Pharoah, Madras. Downloadable scans from The Biodiversity Library. www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/8148. |I

Wilkinson, H.P. (1992). Leaf anatomy of Pittosporaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 110, 1–59. |T

Wilkinson, H.P. (1994). Leaf and twig anatomy of the Pterostemonaceae (Eng.) Small: ecological and systematic features. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 115, 115–131. |T

Williams, C.A., Harborne, J.B., Greenham, J., Briggs, B.G. and Johnson, L.A.S. (1998). Flavonoid patterns and the revised classification of Australian Restionaceae. Phytochemistry 49, 529–552. |T

Williams, M. and Williams, R. (1986). John Clare: selected poetry and prose. Methuen, London. |Q

Winter, K. and Troughton, J.H. (1978). Photosynthetic pathways in plants of coastal and inland habitats of Israel and the Sinai. Flora 167, 1–34. |PP

Winter, K. (1981). C4 plants of high biomass in arid regions of Asia — occurrence of C4 photosynthesis in Chenopodiaceae and Polygonaceae from the Middle East and USSR. Oecologia 48, 100–106. |PP

Wunderlich, R. (1967). Ein Vorschlag zu einer naturlichen Gliederung der Labiaten auf Grund der Pollenkorner, der Samenentwicklung und des reifen Samens. Oesterr. Bot. Z. 114, 383–483. |T

Wunderlich, R. (1971). Theligonum. Osterr. Bot Z. 119, 327–394. |T

Yakovlev, M.S. and Yoffe, M.D. (1975). Some peculiar features of the embryogeny of Paeonia. Phytomorphology 7, 74–82. |T

Yakovlev, M.S. and Zhukova, G. Ya. (1980). Chlorophyll in embryos of angiosperm seeds, a review. Bot. Notiser 133, 323–336. |E

Yamazaki, T. (1957). Seed formation of Elisiophyllum pinnatum var. reptans. Bot. Mag. Tokyo 70, 162–168. |T

Yampolsky, C. and Yampolsky, Y. (1922). Distribution of sex forms in the phanerogamic flora. Bibliotheca Genetica 2–3, Band III, 1–62. |CY

Ya Tang (1994). Embryology of Plagiopteron suaveolens Griffith (Plagiopteraceae) and its systematic implications. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 116, 145–157. |T

Yeoh, Hock-Hin, Badger, M.R. and Watson, L. (1980). Variations in KmCO2 of ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase among grasses. Pl. Physiol. 66, 1110–1112. |PP|PH

Yeoh, Hock-Hin, Badger, M.R. and Watson, L. (1981). Variations in kinetic properties of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylases among plants. Pl. Physiol. 67, 1151–1155. |PH|PP

Yeoh, H.H., Wee, Y.C. and Watson, L. (1986). Taxonomic variation in leaf protein amino acid compositions of monocotyledonous plants. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 14, 91–96. |PH

Young, D.J. and Watson, L. (1970). The classification of Dicotyledons: a study of the upper levels of the hierarchy. Aust. J. Bot. 18, 387–433. |CL

Zalenskii, O.V. and Glagoleva, T. (1981). Pathway of carbon metabolism in halophytic desert species from Chenopodiaceae. Photosynthetica 15, 244–255. |PP

Ziegler, H. (1974). Biochemical aspects of phloem transport. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology 28, Transport at the cellular level, 43–62. (University Press: Cambridge.) |PH

Ziegler, H., Batanouny, K.H., Sankhla, N., Vyas, O.P. and Stichler, W. (1981). The photosynthetic pathway types of some desert plants from India, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Iraq. Oecologia 48, 93–99. |PP

Zimmermann, M.H. (1957). Translocation of organic substances in trees. I. The nature of the sugars in the sieve tube exudate of trees. Plant Physiol. 32, 288–291. |PH

Zimmermann, M.H. and Ziegler, H. (1975). List of sugars and sugar-alcohols in sieve-tube exudates. In Zimmermann, M.H. and Milburn, J.A. (Editors), ‘Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology’, New Series, vol. 1: Appendix III, 479–503. |PH

Zomlefer, W.B. (1996). The Trilliaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Papers in Botany 9, 91–120. |T

Zomlefer, W.B. (1997). The genera of Melanthiaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Papers in Botany 2, 133–177. |T


Contents