The families of flowering plants

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L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz

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The key and descriptions were generated from a DELTA database (Dallwitz 1980; Dallwitz, Paine, and Zurcher 1993).

Introduction

Interactive key, including interactive information retrieval • Hints on using the interactive key

The interactive key allows free choice of characters, is easy to use, and can lead to correct identifications in spite of occasional errors. It can display all the illustrations, full and partial descriptions, diagnostic descriptions, differences and similarities between taxa, lists of taxa exhibiting or lacking specified attributes, distributions of character states within any set of taxa, geographical distribution, genera included in each family, and classifications (Dahlgren; Dahlgren, Clifford, and Yeo; Cronquist; APG).

Character list • Implicit attributes

Notes on the APG classification

Poems on flowering plants by Giles Watson

Acknowledgements • References • Citation • Contacts, conditions of use, contributions

Descriptions

These descriptions are offered for casual browsing only. We strongly advise against extracting comparative information from them. This is much more easily achieved using the interactive key.

The bold parts in the descriptions are diagnostic descriptions, generated with the aid of Intkey (Dallwitz et al. 1993). They distinguish most taxa in at least two respects from the other taxa.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Z

A
• Acanthaceae Juss. • Aceraceae Juss. • Achariaceae Harms • Achatocarpaceae Heimerl. • Acoraceae J.G. Agardh • Actinidiaceae Van Tiegh. • Adoxaceae Trautv. • Aegicerataceae Blume • Aextoxicaceae Engl. and Gilg • Agavaceae Endl. • Agdestidaceae Nak. • Aitoniaceae Harv. & Sond. • Aizoaceae Rudolphi • Akaniaceae Stapf • Alangiaceae DC. • Alismataceae Vent. • Alliaceae J.G. Agardh • Alseuosmiaceae Airy Shaw • Alstroemeriaceae Dum. • Altingiaceae Lindl. • Alzateaceae S. Graham • Amaranthaceae Juss. • Amaryllidaceae Jaume St.-Hil. • Amborellaceae Pichon. • Anacardiaceae Lindl. • Anarthriaceae Cutler & Airy Shaw • Ancistrocladaceae Planch. • Androstachydaceae Airy Shaw • Anemarrhenaceae Conran, M.W. Chase & Rudall • Anisophylleaceae (Schimp.) Ridl. • Annonaceae Juss. • Anthericaceae J.G. Agardh • Antoniaceae (Endl.) J.G. Agardh • Aphanopetalaceae Endl. • Aphyllanthaceae G.T. Burnett • Apocynaceae Juss. • Apodanthaceae Van Tiegh. • Aponogetonaceae J.G. Agardh • Apostasiaceae Bl. • Aquifoliaceae Bartl. • Aquilariaceae R. Br. • Araceae Juss. • Araliaceae Juss. • Aralidiaceae Philipson and Stone • Argophyllaceae (Engl.) A. Takhtadzhyan • Aristolochiaceae Juss. • Asclepiadaceae R.Br. • Asparagaceae Juss. • Asphodelaceae Juss. • Asteliaceae Dum. • Asteranthaceae Knuth • Asteropeiaceae Takhtadj. • Atherospermataceae R. Br. • Aucubaceae J.G. Agardh • Austrobaileyaceae (Croiz.) Croiz. • Averrhoaceae Hutch. • Avicenniaceae Endl. ex Schnizl.

B
• Balanitaceae Endl. • Balanopaceae Benth. • Balanophoraceae L.C. & A. Rich. • Balsaminaceae DC. • Barbeuiaceae (Baill.) Nak. • Barbeyaceae Rendle • Barclayaceae (Endl.) Li • Barringtoniaceae Rudolphi • Basellaceae Moq.-Tand. • Batidaceae Mart. ex Meissn. • Baueraceae Lindl. • Begoniaceae C.A. Agardh. • Behniaceae Conran, M.W. Chase and Rudall • Berberidaceae Juss. • Berberidopsidaceae (Veldkamp) Takhtajan • Betulaceae S.F. Gray • Biebersteiniaceae Endl. • Bignoniaceae Juss. • Bischofiaceae (Muell. Arg.) Airy Shaw • Bixaceae Link • Blandfordiaceae Dahlgren and Clifford • Blepharocaryaceae Airy Shaw • Boerlagellaceae H.J. Lam • Bombacaceae Kunth • Bonnetiaceae Beauvis • Boraginaceae Juss. • Bretschneideraceae Engl. & Gilg • Brexiaceae Lindl. • Bromeliaceae Juss. • Brunelliaceae Engl. • Bruniaceae DC. • Brunoniaceae Dum. • Buddlejaceae Wilhelm • Burmanniaceae Bl. • Burseraceae Kunth • Butomaceae Rich. • Buxaceae Dum. • Byblidaceae Domin

C
• Cabombaceae A. Rich. • Cactaceae Juss. • Calectasiaceae S.L. Endlicher • Callitrichaceae Link • Calochortaceae Dum. • Calycanthaceae Lindl. • Calyceraceae R.Br. ex Rich. • Campanulaceae Juss. • Campynemataceae Dum. • Canellaceae Mart. • Cannabidaceae Endl. • Cannaceae Juss. • Canotiaceae Britton • Capparidaceae Juss. • Caprifoliaceae Juss. • Cardiopterigaceae Blume corr. Van Tiegh. • Caricaceae Dum. • Carlemanniaceae Airy Shaw • Carpinaceae (Spach) Kuprianova • Cartonemataceae Pichon • Caryocaraceae Szyszyl. • Caryophyllaceae Juss. • Cassythaceae Bartl. ex Lindl. • Casuarinaceae R. Br. • Cecropiaceae C. Berg • Celastraceae R. Br. • Centrolepidaceae Desv. • Cephalotaceae Neger • Ceratophyllaceae S.F. Gray • Cercidiphyllaceae Van Tiegh. • Chenopodiaceae Vent. • Chloranthaceae R. Br. • Chrysobalanaceae R. Br. • Circaeasteraceae Kuntze ex Hutch. • Cistaceae Juss. • Cleomaceae (Pax) Airy Shaw • Clethraceae Klotzsch. • Cneoraceae Link • Cobaeaceae D. Don • Cochlospermaceae Planch. • Colchicaceae DC. • Columelliaceae D. Don • Combretaceae R. Br. • Commelinaceae R. Br. • Compositae Giseke • Connaraceae R. Br. • Convallariaceae Horan. • Convolvulaceae Juss. • Coriariaceae DC. • Coridaceae (Reichb.) J.G. Agardh • Cornaceae Dum. • Corsiaceae Becc. • Corylaceae Mirbel • Corynocarpaceae Engl. • Costaceae (K. Schum.) Nak. • Crassulaceae DC. • Crossosomataceae Endl. • Cruciferae Juss. • Crypteroniaceae A. DC. • Ctenolophaceae (H. Winkl.) Exell & Mendonca • Cucurbitaceae Juss. • Cunoniaceae R. Br. • Curtisiaceae (Harms) Takht. • Cuscutaceae Dum. • Cyanastraceae Engl. • Cyclanthaceae Dum. • Cymodoceaceae N. Taylor • Cynomoriaceae Lindl. • Cyperaceae Juss. • Cypripediaceae Lindl. • Cyrillaceae Endl. • Cytinaceae Brongn.

D
• Daphniphyllaceae Muell. Arg. • Dasypogonaceae Dum. • Datiscaceae Lindl. • Davidiaceae Takht. • Davidsoniaceae Bange • Degeneriaceae Bailey & Smith • Desfontainiaceae Endl. • Dialypetalanthaceae Rizz. & Occh. • Diapensiaceae Lindl. • Dichapetalaceae Baill. • Dicrastylidaceae J. Drumm. ex Harv. • Didiereaceae Radlk. ex Drake • Didymelaceae Leandri • Diegodendraceae Capuron • Dilleniaceae Salisb. • Dioncophyllaceae Airy Shaw • Dioscoreaceae R. Br. • Dipentodontaceae Merr. • Dipsacaceae Juss. • Dipterocarpaceae Bl. • Dirachmaceae (Reiche) Hutch. • Donatiaceae (Mildbr.) Skottsb. • Doryanthaceae Dahlgren and Clifford • Dracaenaceae R.A. Salisbury • Droseraceae Salisb. • Drosophyllaceae Chrtek, Slaviková & Studnicka • Duckeodendraceae Kuhlmann • Dulongiaceae J.G. Agardh • Dysphaniaceae (Pax) Pax

E
• Ebenaceae Gurke • Ecdeiocoleaceae Cutler & Airy Shaw • Ehretiaceae Lindl. • Elaeagnaceae Juss. • Elaeocarpaceae DC. • Elatinaceae Dum. • Ellisiophyllaceae Honda • Emblingiaceae (Pax) Airy Shaw • Empetraceae S.F. Gray • Epacridaceae R. Br. • Eremolepidaceae Van Tiegh. • Eremosynaceae Takht. • Ericaceae Juss. • Eriocaulaceae Desv. • Eriospermaceae Endl. • Erythropalaceae (Hassk.) Van Tiegh. • Erythroxylaceae Kunth • Escalloniaceae Dum. • Eucommiaceae Van Tiegh. • Eucryphiaceae Endl. • Euphorbiaceae Juss. • Euphroniaceae Marcano-Berti • Eupomatiaceae Endl. • Eupteleaceae Van Tiegh. • Euryalaceae J.G. Agardh

F
• Fagaceae Dum. • Flacourtiaceae DC. • Flagellariaceae Dum. • Flindersiaceae (Engl.) C.T. White & Airy Shaw • Foetidiaceae (Niedenzu) Airy Shaw • Fouquieriaceae DC. • Francoaceae A. Juss. • Frankeniaceae S.F. Gray • Fumariaceae DC.

G
• Garryaceae Lindl. • Geissolomataceae Endl. • Gelsemiaceae (G. Don) L. Struwe and V.A. Albert • Geniostomaceae L. Struwe and V.A. Albert • Gentianaceae Juss. • Geosiridaceae Jonker • Geraniaceae Juss. • Gerrardinaceae M.H. Alford • Gesneriaceae Dum. • Gisekiaceae Nak. • Glaucidiaceae (Himmelb.) Tamura • Globulariaceae DC. • Goetzeaceae Miers ex Airy Shaw • Gomortegaceae Reiche • Gonystylaceae Van Tiegh • Goodeniaceae R. Br. corr. Dum. • Goupiaceae Miers • Gramineae Juss. • Greyiaceae (Gürke) Hutch. • Griseliniaceae J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. ex A. Cunn. • Grossulariaceae DC. • Grubbiaceae Endl. • Guamatelaceae S.H. Oh and D. Potter • Gunneraceae Endl. • Guttiferae Juss. • Gyrocarpaceae Dum. • Gyrostemonaceae Endl.

H
• Haemodoraceae R. Br. • Halophytaceae Soriano • Haloragidaceae R. Br. • Hamamelidaceae R. Br. • Hanguanaceae Airy Shaw • Hectorellaceae Philipson & Skipworth • Heliconiaceae (Endl.) Nak. • Helwingiaceae Decaisne • Hemerocallidaceae R. Br. • Henriqueziaceae (Hook. f.) Bremek. • Hernandiaceae Blume • Herreriaceae • Heteropyxidaceae Engler & Gilg • Himantandraceae Diels • Hippocastanaceae DC. • Hippuridaceae Link. • Hoplestigmataceae Gilg • Hostaceae B. Mathew • Huaceae A. Chev. • Hugoniaceae Arn. • Humbertiaceae Pichon • Humiriaceae Juss. • Hyacinthaceae J.G. Agardh • Hydatellaceae Hamann • Hydnoraceae C.A. Agardh • Hydrangeaceae Dum. • Hydrastidaceae Lemesle • Hydrocharitaceae Juss. • Hydrophyllaceae R. Br. ex Edwards • Hydrostachydaceae Engl. • Hymenocardiaceae Airy Shaw • Hypecoaceae (Prantl & Kundig) Barkley • Hypoxidaceae R. Br. • Hypseocharitaceae Weddell

I
• Icacinaceae Miers • Idiospermaceae S.T.Blake • Illiciaceae Van Tiegh. • Iridaceae Juss. • Irvingiaceae Pierre • Iteaceae J.G. Agardh • Ixerbaceae Griseb. ex Doweld & Reveal • Ixioliriaceae T. Nakai • Ixonanthaceae Planch. ex Klotzsch

J
• Joinvilleaceae Tomlinson & A.C. Sm. • Juglandaceae A. Rich. ex Kunth • Julianaceae Hemsl. • Juncaceae Juss. • Juncaginaceae Rich.

K
• Kingdoniaceae (Janchen) A.S. Foster ex Airy Shaw • Kirkiaceae (Engl.) Takht. • Koeberliniaceae Engl. • Krameriaceae Dum.

L
• Labiatae Juss. • Lacandoniaceae E. Martinez & C.H. Ramos • Lacistemataceae Mart. • Lactoridaceae Engl. • Lardizabalaceae Decne. • Lauraceae Juss. • Lecythidaceae Poiteau • Ledocarpaceae Meyen • Leeaceae (DC.) Dum. • Leguminosae Adanson • Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae Kunth • Leguminosae-Mimosoideae Kunth • Leguminosae-Papilionoideae DC. • Leitneriaceae Benth. • Lemnaceae S.F. Gray • Lennoaceae Solms-Laubach • Lentibulariaceae Rich. • Leonticaceae (Spach) Airy Shaw • Lepidobotryaceae Léonard • Lepuropetalaceae (Engl.) Nak. • Liliaceae Juss. • Limnanthaceae R. Br. • Limnocharitaceae Takht. • Linaceae S.F. Gray • Lissocarpaceae Gilg • Loasaceae Spreng. • Loganiaceae Mart. • Lophopyxidaceae (Engl.) H.H. Pfeiff. • Loranthaceae Juss. • Lowiaceae Ridl. • Luzuriagaceae J. Dostal • Lythraceae Jaume St.-Hil.

M
• Magnoliaceae Juss. • Malesherbiaceae D. Don • Malpighiaceae Juss. • Malvaceae Juss. • Marantaceae Petersen • Marcgraviaceae Choisy • Martyniaceae Stapf • Mastixiaceae Van Tiegh. • Mayacaceae Kunth • Medusagynaceae Engl. & Gilg • Medusandraceae Brenan • Melanophyllaceae Takht. • Melanthiaceae Batsch • Melastomataceae Juss. • Meliaceae Juss. • Melianthaceae Link • Meliosmaceae Endl. • Memecylaceae DC. • Mendonciaceae (Lindau) Bremek. • Menispermaceae Juss. • Menyanthaceae Dum. • Misodendraceae J.G. Agardh • Mitrastemonaceae Mak. • Mitreolaceae Watson, informal • Molluginaceae Hutchinson • Monimiaceae Juss. • Monotropaceae Nutt. • Montiniaceae (Engl.) Nak. • Moraceae Link • Morinaceae J.G. Agardh • Moringaceae Dum. • Muntingiaceae C. Bayer, M.W. Chase and M.F. Fay • Musaceae Juss. • Myoporaceae R. Br. • Myricaceae Bl. & Dum. • Myristicaceae R. Br. • Myrothamnaceae Niedenzu • Myrsinaceae R. Br. • Myrtaceae Juss.

N
• Najadaceae Juss. • Nandinaceae J.G. Agardh • Napoleonaeaceae P. Beauv. • Naucleaceae (DC.) Wernh. • Nelsoniaceae Sreem. • Nelumbonaceae Dum. • Nepenthaceae Dum. • Neumanniaceae Van Tiegh. • Neuradaceae J.G. Agardh • Nitrariaceae Bercht & J. Presl • Nolanaceae Dum. • Nolinaceae T. Nakai • Nyctaginaceae Juss. • Nymphaeaceae Salisb. • Nyssaceae Dum.

O
• Oceanopapaveraceae auct., nomen nudum • Ochnaceae DC. • Octoknemaceae Van Tiegh. • Olacaceae Juss. • Oleaceae Hoffmgg. & Link • Oliniaceae Arn. ex Sond. • Onagraceae Juss. • Oncothecaceae Kobuski ex Airy Shaw • Opiliaceae Valeton • Orchidaceae Juss. • Orobanchaceae Vent. • Oxalidaceae R. Br.

P
• Paeoniaceae Rudolphi • Palmae Juss. • Pandaceae Pierre • Pandanaceae R. Br. • Papaveraceae Juss. • Paracryphiaceae Airy Shaw • Parnassiaceae S.F. Gray • Passifloraceae Juss. • Pedaliaceae R. Br. • Peganaceae Tiegh. ex Takht. • Pelliceriaceae (Planch. & Triana) Beauvis • Penaeaceae Guillemin • Pennantiaceae J.G. Agardh • Pentadiplandraceae Hutch. & Dalziel • Pentaphragmataceae J.G. Agardh • Pentaphylacaceae Engl. • Pentastemonaceae Duyfjes • Penthoraceae Van Tiegh. • Peperomiaceae (Miq.) Wettst. • Peraceae (Baill.) Benth. ex Klotsch • Peridiscaceae Kuhlm. • Periplocaceae Schltr. • Petermanniaceae Hutch. • Phellinaceae (Loes.) Takht. • Philadelphaceae D. Don • Philesiaceae Dum. • Philydraceae Link. • Phormiaceae J.G. Agardh • Phrymataceae Schauer • Physenaceae Takhtajan • Phytolaccaceae R. Br. • Picramniaceae (Engl.) Fernando & Quinn • Picrodendraceae Small • Piperaceae C.A. Agardh • Pistaciaceae (Marchand) Caruel. • Pittosporaceae R. Br. • Plagiopteraceae Airy Shaw • Plantaginaceae Juss. • Platanaceae Dum. • Plocospermataceae Hutch. • Plumbaginaceae Juss. • Podoaceae Baill. ex Franch. • Podophyllaceae DC. • Podostemaceae Rich. ex C.A. Agardh • Polemoniaceae Juss. • Polygalaceae Juss. • Polygonaceae Juss. • Polypremaceae Takht. ex Reveal • Pontederiaceae Kunth • Portulacaceae Juss. • Posidoniaceae (Kunth) Lotsy • Potaliaceae Mart. • Potamogetonaceae Dum. • Primulaceae Vent. • Proteaceae Juss. • Psiloxylaceae Croizat • Ptaeroxylaceae Sonder • Pteridophyllaceae (Murb.) Sugiura ex Nak. • Pterostemonaceae (Engl.) Small • Punicaceae Horan. • Pyrolaceae Dum.

Q
• Quiinaceae Engl. • Quillajaceae D. Don

R
• Rafflesiaceae Dum. • Ranunculaceae Juss. • Rapateaceae Dum. • Resedaceae S.F. Gray • Restionaceae R. Br. • Retziaceae Bartl. • Rhabdodendraceae (Engl.) Prance • Rhamnaceae Juss. • Rhizophoraceae R. Br. • Rhodoleiaceae (Harms) Nak. • Rhoipteleaceae Hand.-Mazz. • Rhynchocalycaceae Johnson and Briggs • Ripogonaceae Conran and Clifford • Roridulaceae Engl. & Gilg • Rosaceae L. • Rousseaceae Hook. f. ex Benth. • Rubiaceae Juss. • Ruppiaceae Horan. • Ruscaceae Spreng. • Rutaceae Juss.

S
• Sabiaceae Bl. • Saccifoliaceae Maguire and Pires • Salicaceae Mirbel • Salvadoraceae Lindl. • Sambucaceae Link. • Santalaceae R. Br • Sapindaceae Juss. • Sapotaceae Juss. • Sarcobataceae Behnke • Sarcolaenaceae Caruel • Sarcospermataceae H.J. Lam • Sargentodoxaceae Stapf • Sarraceniaceae Dum. • Saururaceae A. Rich. • Saxifragaceae Juss. • Scheuchzeriaceae Rudolphi • Schisandraceae Bl. • Scrophulariaceae Juss. • Scyphostegiaceae Hutch. • Scytopetalaceae Engl. • Setchellanthaceae Iltis • Simaroubaceae DC. • Simmondsiaceae (Pax) Van Tiegh. • Siparunaceae (A. DC.) Schodde • Siphonodontaceae Gagnep. & Tardieu • Sladeniaceae Gilg & Werderm.) Airy Shaw • Smilacaceae Vent. • Solanaceae Juss. • Sonneratiaceae Engl. & Gilg • Sparganiaceae Schultz-Schultzenst. • Sphaerosepalaceae Van Tiegh. • Sphenocleaceae (Lindl.) Mart. ex DC. • Sphenostemonaceae P. van Royen & Airy Shaw • Spigeliaceae Mart. • Stachyuraceae J.G. Agardh • Stackhousiaceae R. Br. • Staphyleaceae (DC.) Lindl. • Stegnospermataceae (H. Walter) Nak. • Stemonaceae Engl. • Sterculiaceae Vent. • Stilaginaceae C.A. Agardh • Stilbaceae Kunth • Strasburgeriaceae Van Tiegh. • Strelitziaceae (K. Schum.) Hutch. • Strychnaceae Link. • Stylidiaceae R. Br. • Stylobasiaceae J.G. Agardh • Stylocerataceae Baill. • Styracaceae Dum. • Surianaceae Arn. • Symphoremataceae Van Tiegh. • Symplocaceae Desf.

T
• Taccaceae Dum. • Tamaricaceae Link. • Tapisciaceae (F. Pax) Takhtajan • Tecophilaeaceae Leybold • Tepuianthaceae Maguire and Steyermark • Tetracarpaeaceae (Engl.) Nak. • Tetracentraceae Van Tiegh. • Tetrachondraceae Skottsb. • Tetragoniaceae Link. • Tetramelaceae (Warb.) Airy Shaw • Tetrameristaceae (H. Hallier) Hutch. • Theaceae D. Don • Theligonaceae Dum. • Theophrastaceae Link. • Thismiaceae J.G. Agardh • Thunbergiaceae Van Tiegh. • Thurniaceae Engl. • Thymelaeaceae Juss. • Ticodendraceae Gómes-Laurito and P. Gómes • Tiliaceae Juss. • Toricelliaceae (Wang.) Hu corr. Airy Shaw • Tovariaceae Pax • Trapaceae Dum. • Trapellaceae (F.W. Oliver) Honda & Sakisake • Tremandraceae DC. • Tribelaceae (Engl.) Airy Shaw • Trichopodaceae Hutch. • Trigoniaceae Endl. • Trilliaceae Lindl. • Trimeniaceae Perk. & Gilg • Triplostegiaceae (Hock) Bobrov ex Airy Shaw • Triuridaceae Gardn. • Trochodendraceae Prantl • Tropaeolaceae DC. • Turneraceae DC. • Typhaceae Juss.

U
• Uapacaceae (Muell. Arg.) Airy Shaw • Ulmaceae Mirb. • Umbelliferae Juss. • Urticaceae Juss. • Uvulariaceae Kunth

V
• Vahliaceae (Reichb.) Dandy • Valerianaceae Batsch. • Velloziaceae Endl. • Verbenaceae Jaume St-Hil. • Viburnaceae Dum. • Violaceae Batsch. • Viscaceae Miq. • Vitidaceae Juss. • Vivianiaceae Klotzsch. • Vochysiaceae A. St-Hil.

W
• Wellstediaceae (Pilger) Novak • Winteraceae Lindl.

X
• Xanthophyllaceae (Chodat) Gagnep. • Xanthorrhoeaceae Dum. • Xeronemataceae M.W. Chase, Rudall & M.F. Fay • Xyridaceae C.A. Agardh

Z
• Zannichelliaceae Dum. • Zingiberaceae Lindl. • Zosteraceae Dum. • Zygophyllaceae R. Br.


Cite this publication as: ‘Watson, L., and Dallwitz, M.J. 1992 onwards. The families of flowering plants: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. Version: 19th October 2013. http://delta-intkey.com’.

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