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Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys


Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz

Toxotrypana nigra Blanchard


Body. Setae red brown, or dark red brown.

Head. Frons with brown band or mark including ocellar tubercle and extending to eye margin (also dark brown anteromedially), or mostly to entirely brown. Occiput with 3 separate or 1 large trilobed brown area on medial and lateral sclerites. Frontal setae 0–3 (small, weak, barely differentiated from setulae). Orbital setae small, weak, or absent. Ocellar seta weak, small or absent. Gena with brown spot below eye (or often mostly brown). Facial carina in profile concave or flat on dorsal 2/3, or produced near midheight (occasionally slightly produced). Face with ventral part gradually tapered laterally; with brown markings, or mostly to entirely brown. Facial carina mostly brown. Antennal groove entirely brown. Face without whitish markings. Antenna not extended to ventral margin of face. Arista of male without preapical expansion. Palpus in lateral view evenly setulose.

Thorax. Postpronotal lobe and notopleuron entirely microtrichose. Scutum nonmicrotrichose except narrowly medially and laterally and broad triangular postsutural area, or nonmicrotrichose (except on lateral margin, along transverse suture, and posterior to suture, on and lateral to sublateral yellow vitta). Scutellum disc microtrichose basally (apical margin nonmicrotrichose). Postpronotal, presutural supra-alar, dorsocentral, intra-alar and scutellar setae absent or small and weak, much shorter than scutellum length. Acrostichal seta small, weak (often), or absent. Basal scutellar seta absent. Katepisternal seta weak, no larger than postocellar seta, or absent. Scutum pale sublateral postsutural vitta extended posteriorly to intra-alar seta, or not extended posteriorly to intra-alar seta; without brown vittae (mostly to entirely dark brown to black, vittae fused or not apparent), or with 2–3 pairs of brown vittae. Submedial scutal vittae connected to posteromedial brown mark. Scutellum with brown band on sides and apex, or mostly to entirely brown. Mesopleuron mostly dark orange to brown. Anatergite with complete brown sublateral vitta, or mostly or entirely brown. Subscutellum entirely brown to dark brown (usually), or yellow to red brown medially, dark brown laterally. Mediotergite entirely brown to dark brown (usually), or yellow to red brown medially, dark brown laterally, or orange with 3 dark brown vittae. Femora at least one femur partly to entirely brown. Fore femur with posterodorsal and ventral rows of setae weak, barely differentiated from setulae.

Wings. Wing pattern with basal half of S-band reduced to streak in cubital cells, costal band continuous to wing apex, proximal arm of V-band variable. Cell c mostly or entirely infuscated to subhyaline, or paler posteriorly, without distinct subapical hyaline area. C-band broadly extending to vein M in cell br along cell bm; covering base of cell r2+3; yellow or orange area posterior to pterostigma filling all of band in cells r1 and r2+3 (C-band entirely medium to dark brown). Cell bm entirely hyaline or infuscated only along subapical fold, or posterior third to half infuscated. S-band base without extension in cell a1 to or almost to posterior margin. Cubital streak (isolated base of S-band) entirely covering cell bcu. Subapical hyaline area in radial cells distal to r-m S-band entirely covering cell r2+3 distal to r-m. S-band distal section without marginal hyaline band or spots in cell r2+3 or near apices of R2+3 or R4+5. V-band proximal arm absent or diffuse and much paler than apical half of S-band. V-band distal arm absent. S-band distal section width ratio (width of S-band/width of cell r2+3, both measured perpendicular to costal margin at apex of vein R2+3) 1. Area surrounding apex of lobe of cell bcu with microtrichia similar in density to area anterdistal to it along vein Cu1. Area between S-band and V-band entirely microtrichose in cells dm and cu1. Vein R2+3 strongly sinuous; without accessory vein, or with anteriorly-directed accessory vein. Vein R4+5 distal to crossvein r-m more or less evenly curved or not strongly bowed medially. Costa in male with 2–3 rows of setulae on anterior margin between crossvein h and apex of vein R1 much stouter than setulae on dorsal and ventral sides and more distally. Crossvein dm-cu orientation with anterior end more distal than posterior end.

Abdomen. Abdomen petiolate, syntergite 1+2 with basal part narrow and parallel-sided and apical part distinctly broader. Abdominal tergite with brown markings. Oviscape strongly dorsally arched. Eversible membrane with dorsobasal denticles all sclerotized, in continuous triangular to semicircular or suboval pattern. Aculeus tip lateral margins not curved dorsally; not flared outward at or proximal to base.


Data recording inadequate. Sex of recorded specimens: male and female.

Biology and economic significance

This species is not considered economically important. Its only reported host is a species of Morrenia (Asclepiadaceae). Refer to the Fruit Fly Databases for host plant information.


• Wing, male.


Fruit Fly Databases for host plant, distribution, and nomenclatural information. Google search.