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Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys


Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz

Toxotrypana curvicauda Gerstaecker


Body. Setae red brown, or dark red brown.

Head. Frons with brown band or mark including ocellar tubercle and extending to eye margin (sometimes also brown anteriorly). Occiput without brown marks, or with brown marks only on medial sclerite, or with 3 separate or 1 large trilobed brown area on medial and lateral sclerites (medial vitta or lobe often forked dorsally). Medial occipital sclerite with only medial brown vitta or spot. Frontal setae 2–5 (relatively small and weak). Orbital setae small, weak, or absent. Ocellar seta weak, small or absent. Gena with brown spot below eye. Facial carina in profile concave or flat on dorsal 2/3. Face with ventral part gradually tapered laterally; without brown markings, or with brown markings. Facial carina without brown markings, or with brown marking on ventral margin (sometimes divided medially), or with mark or vitta extending from vental margin. Antennal groove without brown markings. Face without whitish markings. Antenna not extended to ventral margin of face. Arista of male without preapical expansion. Palpus in lateral view evenly setulose.

Thorax. Postpronotal lobe and notopleuron mostly or entirely nonmicrotrichose. Scutum nonmicrotrichose (except postsutural margin lateral to postsutural supra-alar seta). Scutellum disc mostly or entirely without microtrichia. Postpronotal, presutural supra-alar, dorsocentral, intra-alar and scutellar setae absent or small and weak, much shorter than scutellum length. Acrostichal seta absent (usually), or small, weak. Basal scutellar seta absent. Katepisternal seta absent. Scutum pale sublateral postsutural vitta not extended posteriorly to intra-alar seta (posterior end of brown sublateral vitta strongly laterally curved, covering base of intra-alar seta). Scutum posteriorly with brown or orange brown band or other transverse marking or larger posteromedial mark. Scutum with 2–3 pairs of brown vittae. Submedial scutal vittae separated from posteromedial brown mark. Scutal posteromedial brown mark wider than long. Scutellum brown on side, markings not connected apically. Mesopleuron mostly yellow to orange, with dark brown spots or bands on at least anepisternum, katepisternum and anepimeron. Anatergite without brown markings or with dark dorsal and ventrolateral spots. Subscutellum entirely brown to dark brown. Femora at least one femur partly to entirely brown. Fore femur with posterodorsal and ventral rows of setae weak, barely differentiated from setulae.

Wings. Wing pattern with basal half of S-band reduced to streak in cubital cells, costal band continuous to wing apex, proximal arm of V-band variable. C-band broadly extending to vein M in cell br along cell bm; covering base of cell r2+3. Cell bm entirely hyaline or infuscated only along subapical fold. Subapical hyaline area in radial cells distal to r-m S-band entirely covering cell r2+3 distal to r-m. S-band distal section without marginal hyaline band or spots in cell r2+3 or near apices of R2+3 or R4+5. S-band distally extended to apex of vein M, or not extended to apex of vein M. V-band proximal arm absent or diffuse and much paler than apical half of S-band. V-band distal arm absent. S-band distal section width ratio (width of S-band/width of cell r2+3, both measured perpendicular to costal margin at apex of vein R2+3) 1. Pterostigma ratio 5–8. Ratio of costa length between apices of Sc and R1/length between apices of R1 and R2+3 0.9–1.1 (1). Vein R2+3 strongly sinuous; with anteriorly-directed accessory vein. Cell bcu posteroapical lobe longer than vein A1+Cu2. Costa in male with 2–3 rows of setulae on anterior margin between crossvein h and apex of vein R1 much stouter than setulae on dorsal and ventral sides and more distally. Crossvein dm-cu orientation with anterior end more distal than posterior end.

Abdomen. Abdomen petiolate, syntergite 1+2 with basal part narrow and parallel-sided and apical part distinctly broader. Abdominal tergite with brown markings. Abdominal tergites at least with syntergite 1+2 with dark brown band. Epandrium posterodorsal margin evenly rounded. Glans present; without spinules. Oviscape strongly dorsally arched; length 11–20 mm. Eversible membrane with dorsobasal denticles all sclerotized, in continuous triangular to semicircular or suboval pattern. Aculeus length 11–20 mm. Aculeus in ventral view more or less parallel-sided except extreme base. Aculeus tip lateral margins not curved dorsally; triangular; not flared outward at or proximal to base; without ridges or lobes. Spermathecae sclerotized. Egg without lobe.


Sex of recorded specimens: male and female.

Biology and economic significance

As indicated by its common name, papaya fruit fly, this species is a common pest of papaya (Carica papaya L.). Additional hosts include a variety of Asclepiadaceae, Caricaceae, and perhaps Apocynaceae. All of these plants produce copious, milky white latex and have fruits with very thick skins. The larvae feed on developing seeds and associated tissues within the central cavity of the fruit, and the holes they burrow through the pulp to exit the fruit destroy the edible part of the papaya. Landolt (1999) extensively reviewed the behavior and other aspects of the biology of this species. The adults are vespid wasp mimics. Males stake out territories on host plants and produce a pheromone to call females. The female lays its eggs in immature fruits, using the long ovipositor to penetrate the skin and thick pulp, and deposit the eggs in the seed cavity. There are three larval stages. The mature larva tunnels out of the fruit and pupates in the soil. In Florida, T. curvicauda has been reported to attack mango, Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), on isolated or very rare occurrences (Butcher 1952), but mango is not considered a normal host plant (Landolt 1999). Refer to the Fruit Fly Databases for host plant information.


• Habitus, female (lateral). • Thorax. • Thorax. • Wing.


Fruit Fly Databases for host plant, distribution, and nomenclatural information. Google search.