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Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys


Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz

Toxotrypana australis Blanchard


Body. Setae red brown, or dark red brown.

Head. Frons with brown band or mark including ocellar tubercle and extending to eye margin (often also dark orange or brown anteriorly). Anterior or single orbital seta at margin of brown band, or within brown band (usually). Occiput with 3 separate or 1 large trilobed brown area on medial and lateral sclerites (lateral sclerite with brown mark ventral to lateral vertical seta usually small and isolated from mark on medial sclerite, which often entends onto lateral sclerite ventrally). Frontal setae 0–3 (small, weak, barely differentiated from setulae). Orbital setae small, weak, or absent. Ocellar seta weak, small or absent. Gena with brown spot below eye. Facial carina in profile concave or flat on dorsal 2/3. Face with ventral part gradually tapered laterally; with brown markings. Facial carina without brown markings. Antennal groove with brown vitta or ventral spot on side of carina (usually on no more than ventral half). Face without whitish markings. Antenna not extended to ventral margin of face. Arista of male without preapical expansion. Palpus in lateral view evenly setulose.

Thorax. Postpronotal lobe and notopleuron entirely microtrichose. Scutum nonmicrotrichose except narrowly medially and laterally and broad triangular postsutural area, or nonmicrotrichose (except on lateral margin, along transverse suture, and posterior to suture, on and lateral to sublateral yellow vitta). Scutellum disc microtrichose basally (apical margin nonmicrotrichose). Postpronotal, presutural supra-alar, dorsocentral, intra-alar and scutellar setae absent or small and weak, much shorter than scutellum length. Acrostichal seta absent. Basal scutellar seta absent. Katepisternal seta absent. Scutum pale sublateral postsutural vitta extended posteriorly to intra-alar seta (posterior end of brown sublateral vitta not laterally curved and not covering base of intra-alar seta). Scutum posteriorly with brown or orange brown band or other transverse marking or larger posteromedial mark. Scutum with 2–3 pairs of brown vittae. Submedial scutal vittae separated from posteromedial brown mark (usually), or connected to posteromedial brown mark. Scutal posteromedial brown mark longer than wide. Scutellum brown on side, markings not connected apically, or with brown band on sides and apex (disk narrowly brown basally). Mesopleuron mostly yellow to orange, with dark brown spots or bands on at least anepisternum, katepisternum and anepimeron. Anatergite with complete brown sublateral vitta. Subscutellum yellow to red brown medially, dark brown laterally. Mediotergite entirely yellow to orange, or yellow to red brown medially, dark brown laterally (narrowly, often only ventrally). Femora entirely yellow to orange.

Wings. Wing pattern with basal half of S-band reduced to streak in cubital cells, costal band continuous to wing apex, proximal arm of V-band variable. Cell c mostly or entirely infuscated to subhyaline, or paler posteriorly, without distinct subapical hyaline area. Cell bm entirely hyaline or infuscated only along subapical fold (usually), or posterior third to half infuscated. Subapical hyaline area in radial cells distal to r-m S-band entirely covering cell r2+3 distal to r-m. S-band distal section without marginal hyaline band or spots in cell r2+3 or near apices of R2+3 or R4+5. V-band proximal arm absent or diffuse and much paler than apical half of S-band. V-band distal arm absent. S-band distal section width ratio (width of S-band/width of cell r2+3, both measured perpendicular to costal margin at apex of vein R2+3) 1. Costa in male with 2–3 rows of setulae on anterior margin between crossvein h and apex of vein R1 much stouter than setulae on dorsal and ventral sides and more distally.

Abdomen. Abdomen petiolate, syntergite 1+2 with basal part narrow and parallel-sided and apical part distinctly broader. Abdominal tergite with brown markings. Oviscape strongly dorsally arched. Eversible membrane with dorsobasal denticles all sclerotized, in continuous triangular to semicircular or suboval pattern. Aculeus tip lateral margins not curved dorsally; not flared outward at or proximal to base.


Sex of recorded specimens: male and female.

Biology and economic significance

This species is not considered economically important. Its only reported host is a species of Morrenia (Asclepiadaceae). Refer to the Fruit Fly Databases for host plant information.


• Thorax & male abdomen (dorsal).


Fruit Fly Databases for host plant, distribution, and nomenclatural information. Google search.