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Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys

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Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz

Character List

Body

#1. Setae <color>/

1. golden to pale orange/

2. orange/

3. orange brown/

4. red brown/

5. dark red brown/

6. dark brown to black/

The vestiture, or hairlike projections of the cuticle, include macrotrichia (setae or setulae), which have an alveolus (socket), and microtrichia, which do not have an alveolus. Setae are the large macrosetae (bristles) that occur at typical positions on the head and thorax in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana. There is variation in setal color within most species and sometimes even within an individual specimen. If the head and thoracic setae differ in color, score a specimen based on the thoracic setae.

Illustrations.

Head

#2. Frons <brown markings exclusive of ocellar tubercle and anteriorly>/

1. without brown markings except ocellar tubercle/

2. with paired brown mark on orbital plate, separate from mark on ocellar tubercle <may extend to eye margin>/

3. with small brown marks bordering orbital plate laterally and mesally <latter may be connected posteriorly to ocellar tubercle>/

4. with paired elongate brown mark along eye margin, not connected to mark on ocellar tubercle/

5. with brown band or mark including ocellar tubercle and extending to eye margin <may be transverse, ovoid, U-shaped or with submedial anterior extensions>/

6. with narrow transverse or U-shaped brown mark on orbital plate and vertex, not extending to eye, connected only to posterior side of mark on ocellar tubercle/

7. with medial brown mark, trilobed anteriorly, not reaching lateral margin/

8. mostly to entirely brown/

The frons is the anterodorsal medial area of the head between the compound eyes, vertex, and ptilinal fissure. It is normally yellow to orange except for the brown ocellar tubercle. There are sometimes additional brown markings.

Illustrations.

#3. Anterior or single orbital seta <location in relation to brown band>/

1. anterior or mesal to brown band/

2. at margin of brown band/

3. within brown band/

The orbital setae (= superior fronto-orbital bristles) are located posteriorly on the frons, between the ocelli and the compound eye, on the triangular orbital plate. There are normally 1–2 reclinate orbital setae in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana. They are small and weak, if present, in Toxotrypana.

Illustrations.

#4. Occiput <brown marks>/

1. without brown marks/

2. with brown marks only on medial sclerite/

3. with brown marks only on lateral sclerite/

4. with pair of brown marks on medial and lateral sclerites/

5. with single broad brown area on medial and lateral sclerites/

6. with 3 separate or 1 large trilobed brown area on medial and lateral sclerites/

The occiput is the posterior, dorsal part of the head, posterior to the vertex and eyes. In Tephritidae and other Brachycera, it is divided into three parts (medial and two lateral parts) by a pair of sutures. The lateral parts merge ventrally with the postgenae.

Illustrations.

#5. Medial occipital sclerite <brown marks>/

1. with brown marks restricted to lateral margins/

2. with only medial brown vitta or spot/

3. with 3 brown vittae/

The occiput is the posterior, dorsal part of the head, posterior to the vertex and eyes. In Tephritidae and other Brachycera, it is divided into three parts (medial and two lateral parts) by a pair of sutures. The lateral parts merge ventrally with the postgenae.

Illustrations.

#6. Frontal setae <number>/

The frontal setae (= inferior fronto-orbital bristles) are inclinate setae arranged in a row near the lateral margin of the frons. They are small and weak, if present, in Toxotrypana.

Illustrations.

#7. Orbital setae <number>/

1. 1/

2. 2/

The orbital setae (= superior fronto-orbital bristles) are located posteriorly on the frons, between the ocelli and the compound eye, on the triangular orbital plate. There are normally 1–2 reclinate orbital setae in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana. They are small and weak, if present, in Toxotrypana.

Illustrations.

#8. Ocellar seta <development>/

1. weak, small or absent/

2. well developed <more than twice length of ocellar tubercle>/

The ocellar seta is located on the dorsal side of the head. It arises on or adjacent to the ocellar tubercle, in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana usually near the midpoint between the anterior and posterior ocelli. It is usually small and weak or absent in both genera.

Illustrations.

#9. Gena <presence of brown spot>/

1. without brown spot/

2. with brown spot below eye/

The gena is the lateral area of the head ventral to the compound eye. It is posterior to the parafacial and facial ridge, and anterior to the postgena.

Illustrations.

#10. Facial carina in profile <dorsal 2/3> /

1. concave or flat on dorsal 2/3/

2. produced between or just below antennae/

3. produced near midheight/

The face is the anterior medial area of the head ventral to the antenna and medial to the parafacial and facial ridge. The facial carina (= clypeal ridge, Stone 1942) is a keel-like medial protrusion of the face. Its profile is observed in lateral view.

Illustrations.

#11. Face <shape in anterior view>/

1. with ventral part gradually tapered laterally/

2. with ventral part extended laterally, forming right angle with facial ridge/

The face is the anterior medial area of the head ventral to the antenna and medial to the parafacial and facial ridge.

Illustrations.

#12. Face <brown markings>/

1. without brown markings/

2. with brown markings/

3. mostly to entirely brown/

The face is the anterior medial area of the head ventral to the antenna and medial to the parafacial. The facial ridge is the lateral part of the face delimited by the ptilinal suture.

Illustrations.

#13. Facial carina <brown markings>/

1. without brown markings/

2. with brown marking on ventral margin/

3. with mark or vitta extending from vental margin/

4. with dorsal brown spot or vitta that is broader dorsally/

5. mostly brown/

The face is the anterior medial area of the head ventral to the antenna and medial to the parafacial and facial ridge. The facial carina (= clypeal ridge, Stone 1942) is a keel-like medial protrusion of the face.

Illustrations.

#14. Antennal groove <brown markings>/

1. without brown markings/

2. with brown vitta or ventral spot on side of carina/

3. entirely brown/

The face is the anterior medial area of the head ventral to the antenna and medial to the parafacial and facial ridge. In most species of Anastrepha and Toxotrypana, it has a keel-like medial facial carina which separates a pair of depressed areas aligned with the antennae and termed the antennal grooves.

Illustrations.

#15. Face <whitish markings>/

1. without whitish markings/

2. with whitish spot on facial ridge/

3. with narrow whitish band on ventral margin and facial ridge/

4. with elongate narrow mark on facial ridge/

The face is the anterior medial area of the head ventral to the antenna and medial to the parafacial and facial ridge. The facial carina (= clypeal ridge, Stone 1942) is a keel-like medial protrusion of the face. The facial ridge is a narrow, sometimes poorly differentiated sclerite between the face and parafacial.

Illustrations.

#16. Antenna <length>/

1. not extended to ventral margin of face/

2. extended to or beyond ventral margin of face/

The antenna is located anteriorly on the head between the face and frons. In Tephritidae it is comprised of three large segments (scape, pedicel, and first flagellomere) and a slender arista that arises dorsally near the base of the first flagellomere. This character may be difficult to score if the antenna is projecting anteriorly rather than ventrally.

Illustrations.

#17. Arista of male <preapical expansion>/

1. without preapical expansion/

2. with flattened, triangular preapical expansion/

The arista is part of the highly modified flagellum of the antenna in Tephritidae and most Cyclorrhapha. It is a slender, hairlike structure that extends from the dorsal side near the base of the first flagellomere. It comprises the second and third flagellomeres [?? check McAlpine], which are very small, and the greatly elongated and very slender xx flagellomere. In Anastrepha and Toxotrypana the arista is pubescent, i.e., it bears numerous short hairs.

Illustrations.

#18. Palpus in lateral view <setation>/

1. evenly setulose/

2. with subapical bare area and proximal to it a ventral area of denser setulae/

The palpus (technically the maxillary palpus) in Tephritidae is a paired lobelike structure located laterally at the base of the mouthparts. It projects anteriorly and in lateral view is slender and usually curved dorsally. It is covered with fine setulae.

Illustrations.

Thorax

#19. Mesonotum length/

mm/

The mesonotum is the dorsum of the mesothorax, which in flies is well developed and forms most of thorax. The mesonotum includes the scutum, notopleura, scutellum and postnotum. In Tephritidae, the postpronotal lobes are the only dorsally visible parts of the thorax that are not part of the mesonotum. Measure the mesonotum in dorsal view along its midline, from the anterior margin of the scutum to the apex of the scutellum.

Illustrations.

#20. Postpronotal lobe and notopleuron <microtrichia>/

1. entirely microtrichose/

2. mostly or entirely nonmicrotrichose/

The vestiture, or hairlike projections of the cuticle, in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana include macrotrichia (setae or setulae), which have an alveolus (socket), and microtrichia, which do not have an alveolus. Microtrichia are usually extremely small and cannot be seen individually except with high powered microscopes or scanning electron microscopes. They occur in patterns so that some surface areas may appear duller or pruinose versus shiny areas that lack them. Microtrichial patterns are very difficult if not impossible to see in specimens in fluid. On dry specimens they are best observed with the surface held at an oblique angle to the light source. The postpronotal lobe is a rounded rectangular sclerite on the anterolateral corner on the dorsum of the thorax. It normally bears a single postpronotal seta. The notopleuron is a narrow, more or less triangular sclerite posterior to the postpronotal lobe and between the scutum and the anepisternum. It normally has 2 setae.

Illustrations.

#21. Scutum <microtrichia>/

1. mostly or entirely microtrichose <sometimes with presutural (usually anteromedial) bare area>/

2. microtrichose except paired elongate bare areas <sometimes also bare anteromedially>/

3. nonmicrotrichose except narrowly medially and laterally/

4. nonmicrotrichose except narrowly medially and laterally and broad triangular postsutural area/

5. nonmicrotrichose except narrowly laterally and broad triangular postsutural area/

6. <mostly or entirely> nonmicrotrichose <microtrichia at most present on or lateral to postsutural lateral white vitta, along posterior margin, and/or along transverse suture>/

The vestiture, or hairlike projections of the cuticle, in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana include macrotrichia (setae or setulae), which have an alveolus (socket), and microtrichia, which do not have an alveolus. Microtrichia are usually extremely small and cannot be seen individually except with high powered microscopes or scanning electron microscopes. They occur in patterns so that some surface areas may appear duller or pruinose versus shiny areas that lack them. Microtrichial patterns are very difficult if not impossible to see in specimens in fluid. On dry specimens they are best observed with the surface held at an oblique angle to the light source. The scutum is the largest sclerite of the mesonotum. In Tephritidae most of the thorax visible in dorsal view is the scutum (the only other parts directly visible in dorsal view are the postpronotal lobes, notopleura, scutellum, and occasionally the postnotum). The scutum is more or less rectangular and includes pre- and postsutural areas incompletely divided by the transverse suture.

Illustrations.

#22. Scutellum disc <microtrichia>/

1. entirely microtrichose/

2. microtrichose basally/

3. mostly or entirely without microtrichia/

The vestiture, or hairlike projections of the cuticle, in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana include macrotrichia (setae or setulae), which have an alveolus (socket), and microtrichia, which do not have an alveolus. Microtrichia are usually extremely small and cannot be seen individually except with high powered microscopes or scanning electron microscopes. They occur in patterns so that some surface areas may appear duller or pruinose versus shiny areas that lack them. Microtrichial patterns are very difficult if not impossible to see in specimens in fluid. On dry specimens they are best observed with the surface held at an oblique angle to the light source. The scutellum is the triangular or semi-circular sclerite posterior to the scutum on the dorsum of the thorax.

Illustrations.

#23. Postpronotal, presutural supra-alar, dorsocentral, intra-alar and scutellar setae <presence/size>/

1. well developed, subequal to or longer than scutellum length/

2. absent or small and weak, much shorter than scutellum length/

The vestiture, or hairlike projections of the cuticle, include macrotrichia (setae or setulae), which have an alveolus (socket), and microtrichia, which do not have an alveolus. Setae are the large macrosetae (bristles) that occur at typical positions on the head and thorax in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana. The postpronotal seta is the single seta usually present on the postpronotal lobe, the rounded rectangular sclerite on the anterolateral corner on the dorsum of the thorax.

Illustrations.

#24. Postpronotal seta <location>/

1. on posterior half of postpronotal lobe/

2. on anterior 2/5 of postpronotal lobe/

The vestiture, or hairlike projections of the cuticle, include macrotrichia (setae or setulae), which have an alveolus (socket), and microtrichia, which do not have an alveolus. Setae are the large macrosetae (bristles) that occur at typical positions on the head and thorax in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana. The postpronotal seta is the single seta usually present on the postpronotal lobe, the rounded rectangular sclerite on the anterolateral corner on the dorsum of the thorax.

Illustrations.

#25. Acrostichal seta <presence>/

1. well developed/

2. small, weak/

3. absent/

The vestiture, or hairlike projections of the cuticle, include macrotrichia (setae or setulae), which have an alveolus (socket), and microtrichia, which do not have an alveolus. Setae are the large macrosetae (bristles) that occur at typical positions on the head and thorax in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana. The acrostichal seta is located near the midline of the scutum, medial to the dorsocentral seta. In other flies there may be multiple pairs of acrostichal setae aligned in rows, but in Tephritidae there is at most one pair, slightly anterior to the scuto-scutellar suture. It has sometimes been called the prescutellar seta.

Illustrations.

#26. Basal scutellar seta <presence, size>/

1. strong, longer than scutellum/

2. weak, shorter than scutellum/

3. absent/

The vestiture, or hairlike projections of the cuticle, include macrotrichia (setae or setulae), which have an alveolus (socket), and microtrichia, which do not have an alveolus. Setae are the large macrosetae (bristles) that occur at typical positions on the head and thorax in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana. The scutellum in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana has 1–2 pairs of setae. The basal scutellar seta is located on the lateral margin of the basal lateral half of the scutellum.

Illustrations.

#27. Katepisternal seta/

1. well developed, at least half as large as anepimeral seta/

2. moderately developed, larger than postocellar seta, but much smaller and weaker than anepimeral seta/

3. weak, no larger than postocellar seta/

4. absent/

The vestiture, or hairlike projections of the cuticle, include macrotrichia (setae or setulae), which have an alveolus (socket), and microtrichia, which do not have an alveolus. Setae are the large macrosetae (bristles) that occur at typical positions on the head and thorax in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana. The ketepisternum (= sternopleuron) is a triangular sclerite between the coxae of the fore- and midlegs and ventral to the anepisternum. Most species species of Tephritidae have a well developed katepisternal seta near the posterodorsal corner, but it is usually weak or absent in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana.

Illustrations.

#28. Mesonotum <predominant color, other than vittae, bands, or spots>/

1. yellow/

2. orange/

3. dark orange/

4. orange brown/

5. medium brown/

6. dark brown/

The mesonotum is the dorsum of the mesothorax, which in flies is well developed and forms most of thorax. The mesonotum includes the scutum, notopleura, scutellum and postnotum. In Tephritidae, the postpronotal lobes are the only dorsally visible parts of the thorax that are not part of the mesonotum. This character refers to the predominant color of the mesonotum, exclusive of the normal whitish scutal vittae and any brown spots or vittae. In pale species of Anastrepha and Toxotrypana there are sometimes apparent markings due to dark underlying tissues, but only the color of the cuticle should be considered.

Illustrations.

#29. Mesonotum <presutural lateral pale vitta or spot, presence and extent>/

1. without pale spot or vitta on presutural lateral margin of scutum or posterior part of notopleuron/

2. with short presutural lateral pale vitta on lateral margin of scutum, not extended onto notopleuron/

3. with presutural lateral pale vitta on lateral margin of scutum, extended to posterior notopleural seta/

4. with presutural lateral pale vitta on lateral margin of scutum and posterior part of notopleuron (including posterior corner) <may be narrowly interrupted on scutum>/

5. with isolated pale spot on presutural lateral margin of scutum, not extended onto notopleuron/

6. with isolated pale spot on posterior part of notopleuron, not extended onto presutural lateral margin of scutum/

The mesonotum is the dorsum of the mesothorax, which in flies is well developed and forms most of thorax. The mesonotum includes the scutum, notopleura, scutellum and postnotum. In Tephritidae, the thorax often has clear areas in the cuticle called xanthines. Their color may appear white or yellow, depending upon the underlying tissues and the state of preservation of the specimen. In Anastrepha and Toxotrypana, these areas may be difficult to distinguish, especially in dried specimens of predominantly yellow or orange species in which they are less contrasting. Dorsally these areas usually include the postpronotal lobe, most of the scutellum, a pair of sublateral vittae (stripes) from the transverse suture posteriorly, often an unpaired medial vitta, and sometimes additional vittae. A complete presutural lateral vitta extends from the scutum posteromesal to the postpronotal lobe (usually connected with pale area on that sclerite) posterolaterally across the posterior part of the notopleuron. It may be reduced to a spot or spots on these areas.

Illustrations.

#30. Scutum presutural dorsocentral pale vitta <presence>/

1. absent/

2. present but separated anteriorly from pale area of postpronotal lobe/

3. present and connected anteriorly with pale area of postpronotal lobe/

The scutum is the largest sclerite of the mesonotum. In Tephritidae most of the thorax visible in dorsal view is the scutum (the only other parts directly visible in dorsal view are the postpronotal lobes, notopleura, scutellum, and occasionally the postnotum). The scutum is more or less rectangular and includes pre- and postsutural areas incompletely divided by the transverse suture. In Tephritidae it often has clear areas in the cuticle called xanthines. Their color may appear white or yellow, depending upon the underlying tissues and the state of preservation of the specimen. In Anastrepha and Toxotrypana, these areas may be difficult to distinguish, especially in dried specimens of predominantly yellow or orange species in which they are less contrasting. Dorsally these areas usually include the postpronotal lobe, most of the scutellum, a pair of sublateral vittae (stripes) from the transverse suture posteriorly, often an unpaired medial vitta, and sometimes additional vittae. The presutural dorsocentral vitta is anterior to the transverse suture in line with the dorsocentral seta.

Illustrations.

#31. Scutum <number of pale postsutural vittae>/

1. with 2 (sublateral) pale postsutural vittae <including or extending toward intra-alar seta>/

2. with 3 (both medial and sublateral) pale postsutural vittae/

3. with 5 (medial, dorsocentral, and sublateral) pale postsutural vittae <may be fused posteriorly>/

The scutum is the largest sclerite of the mesonotum. In Tephritidae most of the thorax visible in dorsal view is the scutum (the only other parts directly visible in dorsal view are the postpronotal lobes, notopleura, scutellum, and occasionally the postnotum). The scutum is more or less rectangular and includes pre- and postsutural areas incompletely divided by the transverse suture. In Tephritidae it often has clear areas in the cuticle called xanthines. Their color may appear white or yellow, depending upon the underlying tissues and the state of preservation of the specimen. In Anastrepha these areas may be difficult to distinguish, especially in dried specimens of predominantly yellow or orange species in which they are less contrasting. Dorsally these areas usually include the postpronotal lobe, most of the scutellum, and a number of vittae (stripes). Posterior to the transverse suture there is at least a pair of sublateral vittae in line with and usually extending to the intra-alar setae. There is often an unpaired medial vitta that often broadens posteriorly, and occasionally there is another pair of intermediate vittae in line with the dorsocentral seta, usually present only anterior to the transverse suture. This character is better left unscored for pale specimens in which these vittae are difficult to distinguish.

Illustrations.

#32. Scutum pale medial vitta <shape> /

1. narrow posteriorly, not expanded/

2. with posterior end ovoid/

3. with posterior end broadly quadrate/

4. with posterior end triangular/

5. with posterior end bilobed/

The scutum is the largest sclerite of the mesonotum. In Tephritidae most of the thorax visible in dorsal view is the scutum (the only other parts directly visible in dorsal view are the postpronotal lobes, notopleura, scutellum, and occasionally the postnotum). The scutum is more or less rectangular and includes pre- and postsutural areas incompletely divided by the transverse suture. In Tephritidae it often has clear areas in the cuticle called xanthines. Their color may appear white or yellow, depending upon the underlying tissues and the state of preservation of the specimen. In Anastrepha and Toxotrypana, these areas may be difficult to distinguish, especially in dried specimens of predominantly yellow or orange species in which they are less contrasting. Dorsally these areas usually include the postpronotal lobe, most of the scutellum, and a number of vittae (stripes). Frequently there is an unpaired medial vitta on the scutum extending from near the anterior margin almost to the posterior margin. It usually broadens posteriorly in various shapes.

Illustrations.

#33. Scutum pale sublateral postsutural vitta <extent posteriorly> /

1. extended posteriorly to intra-alar seta/

2. not extended posteriorly to intra-alar seta/

The scutum is the largest sclerite of the mesonotum. In Tephritidae most of the thorax visible in dorsal view is the scutum (the only other parts directly visible in dorsal view are the postpronotal lobes, notopleura, scutellum, and occasionally the postnotum). The scutum is more or less rectangular and includes pre- and postsutural areas incompletely divided by the transverse suture. In Tephritidae it often has clear areas in the cuticle called xanthines. Their color may appear white or yellow, depending upon the underlying tissues and the state of preservation of the specimen. In Anastrepha and Toxotrypana, these areas may be difficult to distinguish, especially in dried specimens of predominantly yellow or orange species in which they are less contrasting. Dorsally these areas usually include the postpronotal lobe, most of the scutellum, and a number of vittae (stripes). Posterior to the transverse suture usually there is at least a pair of sublateral vittae in line with and usually extending to the intra-alar setae.

Illustrations.

#34. Scutum posteriorly <brown markings>/

1. without brown or orange brown markings <or scutum predominantly brown>/

2. with only single medial brown spot on scuto-scutellar suture/

3. with pair of brown spots or markings <medial spot may also be present>/

4. with brown or orange brown band or other transverse marking or larger posteromedial mark/

The scutum is the largest sclerite of the mesonotum. In Tephritidae most of the thorax visible in dorsal view is the scutum (the only other parts directly visible in dorsal view are the postpronotal lobes, notopleura, scutellum, and occasionally the postnotum). The scutum is more or less rectangular and includes pre- and postsutural areas incompletely divided by the transverse suture. It is bordered posteriorly by the scutellum. This character refers to the presence and shape of brown markings on the posterior margin of the scutum.

Illustrations.

#35. Scutum posteriorly <paired brown marks>/

1. with only pair of ovoid brown spots on or slightly lateral to dorsocentral line /

2. with only pair of brown spots posteroventral to and between intra-alar and postalar setae/

3. with pair of triangular brown marks on or near dorsocentral line <may be connected posteriorly or with posteromedial spot>/

4. with brown spot or vitta between postalar and intra-alar lines <may also have medial spot and pair of spots between dorsocentral and intra-alar lines>/

The scuto-scutellar suture divides the scutum and scutellum, the largest sclerites of the mesonotum. In Tephritidae these sclerites form most of the thorax visible in dorsal view (the only other parts directly visible in dorsal view are the postpronotal lobes and notopleura, and occasionally the postnotum). The scutum is more or less rectangular and is larger than and anterior to the scutellum. It includes pre- and postsutural areas incompletely divided by the transverse suture. The scutellum is triangular or semicircular in dorsal view and is posterior to the scutum. This character refers to the presence or absence of a dark brown spot centered on the middle of the scuto-scutellar and extending onto the parts of the scutum and scutellum bordering the suture.

Illustrations.

#36. Scutum posteriorly <dark brown transverse markings>/

1. with dark band or broad marking on posterior margin/

2. with large U-shaped mark including posterior band and vittae/

3. with irregular brown markings/

The scutum is the largest sclerite of the mesonotum. In Tephritidae most of the thorax visible in dorsal view is the scutum (the only other parts directly visible in dorsal view are the postpronotal lobes, notopleura, scutellum, and occasionally the postnotum). The scutum is more or less rectangular and includes pre- and postsutural areas incompletely divided by the transverse suture. It is bordered posteriorly by the scutellum. This character refers to the presence and shape of brown markings on the posterior margin of the scutum.

Illustrations.

#37. Scutal posterior brown band <extent laterally>/

1. not extended laterally to include intra-alar seta/

2. extended laterally to include intra-alar seta/

The scutum is the largest sclerite of the mesonotum. In Tephritidae most of the thorax visible in dorsal view is the scutum (the only other parts directly visible in dorsal view are the postpronotal lobes, notopleura, scutellum, and occasionally the postnotum). The scutum is more or less rectangular and includes pre- and postsutural areas incompletely divided by the transverse suture. It is bordered posteriorly by the scutellum. This character refers to the extent of a brown band (transverse marking) on the posterior margin of the scutum, particularly whether or not it reaches the base of the intra-alar seta.

Illustrations.

#38. Scutum <brown vittae, presence>/

1. without brown vittae <submedial and dorsocentral areas no darker than lateral area bearing supra-alar and post-alar setae>/

2. with dark brown dorsocentral vitta <may be interrupted at transverse suture or connected to posterior brown band to form U-shaped mark>/

3. with 2–3 pairs of brown vittae/

The scutum is the largest sclerite of the mesonotum. In Tephritidae most of the thorax visible in dorsal view is the scutum (the only other parts directly visible in dorsal view are the postpronotal lobes, notopleura, scutellum, and occasionally the postnotum). The scutum is more or less rectangular and includes pre- and postsutural areas incompletely divided by the transverse suture. It is bordered posteriorly by the scutellum. This character refers to the presence of elongate brown vittae (longitudinal stripes). Specimens with only a posterior spot or short mark (e.g., as in A. dentata and A. punctata) should be scored absent.

Illustrations.

#39. Submedial scutal vittae <connection to posteromedial brown mark>/

1. separated from posteromedial brown mark/

2. connected to posteromedial brown mark/

The scutum is the largest sclerite of the mesonotum. In Tephritidae most of the thorax visible in dorsal view is the scutum (the only other parts directly visible in dorsal view are the postpronotal lobes, notopleura, scutellum, and occasionally the postnotum). The scutum is more or less rectangular and includes pre- and postsutural areas incompletely divided by the transverse suture. It is bordered posteriorly by the scutellum. This character refers to the pair of elongate brown vittae (longitudinal stripes) closest to the midline and the brown medial mark on the posterior margin of the scutum.

Illustrations.

#40. Scutal posteromedial brown mark <shape>/

1. wider than long/

2. longer than wide/

The scutum is the largest sclerite of the mesonotum. In Tephritidae most of the thorax visible in dorsal view is the scutum (the only other parts directly visible in dorsal view are the postpronotal lobes, notopleura, scutellum, and occasionally the postnotum). The scutum is more or less rectangular and includes pre- and postsutural areas incompletely divided by the transverse suture. It is bordered posteriorly by the scutellum. This character refers to the shape of the brown medial mark on the posterior margin of the scutum.

Illustrations.

#41. Dark brown scutal setulae between brown dorsocentral vitta and yellow sublateral vitta <continuity>/

1. continuous, evenly distributed, without large non-setulose areas/

2. discontinuous, with large non-setulose area/

The scutum is the largest sclerite of the mesonotum. In Tephritidae most of the thorax visible in dorsal view is the scutum (the only other parts directly visible in dorsal view are the postpronotal lobes, notopleura, scutellum, and occasionally the postnotum). The scutum is more or less rectangular and includes pre- and postsutural areas incompletely divided by the transverse suture. It is bordered posteriorly by the scutellum. The vestiture, or hairlike projections of the cuticle, include macrotrichia (setae or setulae), which have an alveolus (socket), and microtrichia, which do not have an alveolus. Setulae are the small macrosetae that cover much of the scutum and various other areas of the body. This character refers to the distribution of setulae on the postsutural part of the scutum between the brown vitta aligned with the dorsocentral seta and the yellow or white sublateral vitta aligned with the intra-alar seta.

Illustrations.

#42. Scutellum <color pattern>/

1. entirely yellow or with dark markings only on extreme base of disk <well separated from basal seta>/

2. with base of disk brown, extending to or beyond level of basal seta/

3. yellow, apex with brown medial spot/

4. with at least basal third of sides and disk brown or orange, distinctly darker than apex/

5. brown on side, markings not connected apically/

6. with brown band on sides and apex <continuous apically>/

7. mostly to entirely brown/

The scutellum is the triangular or semicircular sclerite on the dorsal side of the thorax posterior to the scutum.

Illustrations.

#43. Propleuron <color>/

1. yellow to orange, much paler than darker area on anepisternum <at most dorsal margin very narrowly brown>/

2. mostly yellow to orange, dorsal margin narrowly brown/

3. at least partly dark orange or brown similar to darker area on anepisternum/

The propleuron is the lateral part of the prothorax, which is reduced in Diptera. In Tephritidae the propleuron is a small rectangular sclerite on the anterior end of the thorax, ventral to the postpronotal lobe and anterior to the anterior spiracle and the anepisternum.

Illustrations.

#44. Mesopleuron <color pattern>/

1. mostly yellow to orange, without brown markings/

2. mostly dark orange to brown <at least anepisternum and anepimeron>/

3. mostly yellow to orange, anepimeron mostly brown/

4. mostly yellow to orange, with small dark brown spot on anepimeron/

5. mostly yellow to orange, with dark brown spots or bands on at least anepisternum, katepisternum and anepimeron/

The mesopleuron is the lateral part of the mesothorax and in Diptera comprises the majority of the lateral part of the thorax. It includes the sclerites between the anterior and posterior spiracles, which are the anepisternum, katepisternum, anepimeron, and katepimeron. This character refers to the predominant color of the mesopleuron, exclusive of the normal whitish areas (i.e., the dorsal and posterior margins of the anepisternum, the dorsal margin or dorsomedial spot on the katepisternum, and most of the katatergite and anatergite).

Illustrations.

#45. Anatergite <brown markings>/

1. without brown markings or with dark dorsal and ventrolateral spots/

2. with complete brown sublateral vitta/

3. mostly or entirely brown/

The anatergite is the inverted triangular sclerite on the posterolateral part of the thorax. It is located between the katatergite and the mediotergite, posteroventral to the wing base and dorsal to the posterior spiracle and the base of the haltere. The anatergite and katatergite together form the laterotergite.

Illustrations.

#46. Subscutellum <color and markings>/

1. entirely yellow to orange/

2. entirely brown to dark brown/

3. yellow to red brown medially, dark brown laterally/

4. yellow to orange, with medial black spot/

The subscutellum is the lens-shaped sclerite on the posterior side of the thorax ventral to the scutellum and dorsal to the mediotergite.

Illustrations.

#47. Mediotergite <color and markings>/

1. entirely yellow to orange/

2. entirely brown to dark brown/

3. yellow to red brown medially, dark brown laterally/

4. orange with 3 dark brown vittae/

The mediotergite is a convex rectangular sclerite on the posterior side of the thorax ventral to the scutellum and subscutellum and anterior to the base of the abdomen.

Illustrations.

#48. Femora <color>/

1. entirely yellow to orange/

2. at least one femur partly to entirely brown/

The femur (pleural, femora) is the third segment of the leg, between the trochanter and tibia. In Tephritidae it is elongate and similar in length to the tibia, but stouter than the latter segment.

Illustrations.

#49. Fore femur <setation>/

1. with posterodorsal and ventral rows of well developed setae/

2. with posterodorsal and ventral rows of setae weak, barely differentiated from setulae/

The femur (pleural, femora) is the third segment of the leg, between the trochanter and tibia. In Tephritidae it is elongate and similar in length to the tibia, but stouter than the latter segment. The fore femur is the femur of the foreleg.

Illustrations.

Wings

#50. Wing length/

mm/

In Diptera only the metathoracic pair of wings is normally developed (the metathoracic wing is highly modified into the club-shaped haltere). Wing length is measured from the base of the costa to the wing apex in cell r4+5.

Illustrations.

#51. Wing pattern <type>/

1. typical Anastrepha pattern (S-band complete or at most interrupted at crossvein r-m, C-band and at least proximal arm of V-band present)/

2. typical Anastrepha pattern except S-band interrupted at vein Cu1/

3. with basal half of S-band divided into 3 parts by interruptions along veins R4+5 and Cu1 (i.e., a spot or partial band present in basal half of cell dm), C-band and at least proximal arm of V-band present/

4. with basal half of S-band reduced to streak in cubital cells, costal band continuous to wing apex, proximal arm of V-band variable/

5. with only a large, subapical brown spot, pale brown pterostigma, and diffuse yellow markings in cells bc, c, br, r1 and r2+3/

6. without typical bands <diffuse, irregular, or with normal bands extensively fused>/

The wing pattern in Anastrepha species typically includes three bands, termed the C-band, S-band, and V-band, although parts or all of these bands may be variously connected or fused or absent. The C-band, or costal band, extends from the base of the wing along the anterior margin to the apex of vein R1. It usually extends posteriorly to vein R4+5 and basally usually to vein M. The S-band extends obliquely from the base of cell cu1 across r-m, reaching the anterior wing margin in cell r1, then following the anterior margin to the wing apex.The basal part in cell cu1 and the distal part on the margin of the radial cells are almost always present, but the middle section is sometimes interrupted or absent. The distal half is sometimes fused with the C-band to form a complete marginal band. The V-band includes two arms which are frequently connected anteriorly to form an inverted V. The proximal arm covers crossvein dm-cu. The distal arm extends obliquely across cell r4+5 and the distal part of cell m. It is reduced or absent more frequently than the proximal arm. In Toxotrypana and a few species of Anastrepha, the C-band and distal half of the S-band are fused to form a broad costal band, and other typical markings are lacking except for the cubital streak in the basal cubital cell and cell cu1.

Illustrations.

#52. Cell c <subapical hyaline area>/

1. mostly or entirely infuscated to subhyaline, or paler posteriorly, without distinct subapical hyaline area/

2. infuscated basally, with distinctly hyaline subapical area extended from costa to vein Sc/

Cell c is a small rectangular cell on the anterior margin of the wing between the costa and vein Sc. It is bordered basally by crossvein h. It is within the C-band, but its color is often paler than most of the rest of the band. It often has diffusely paler areas within it, especially posteriorly, but in some species it is infuscated basally and has a distinctly delimited subapical hyaline area. Specimens that are diffusely paler subapically or subbasally and subapically should be scored state 1.

Illustrations.

#53. C-band <in cell br adjacent to cell bm>/

1. broadly extending to vein M in cell br along cell bm/

2. not extending to vein M in cell br adjacent to cell bm/

The C-band, or costal band, extends from the base of the wing along the anterior margin to the apex of vein R1. It usually extends posteriorly to vein M in the basal part of cell br adjacent to cell bm.

Illustrations.

#54. C-band <in base of cell r2+3>/

1. covering base of cell r2+3/

2. not covering base of cell r2+3/

The C-band, or costal band, extends from the base of the wing along the anterior margin to the apex of vein R1. It usually covers the basal part of cell r2+3, the cell between veins R2+3 and R4+5.

Illustrations.

#55. C-band yellow or orange area posterior to pterostigma <extent>/

1. filling all of band in cells r1 and r2+3 <lacking brown areas>/

2. broad, extending distally into cells r1 and r2+3 at least to level of midlength of pterostigma/

3. elongate, extending in cell r1 at least to level of one-third length of pterostigma but not into cell r2+3/

4. small or absent, not extending beyond cell r1 nor distally beyond level of basal third of pterostigma/

The C-band, or costal band, extends from the base of the wing along the anterior margin to the apex of vein R1. It is normally faint or paler in cells bc and c, and brown in most of the pterostigma. In cells r1 and r2+3 posterior to the pterostigma at least the distal margin is usually brown, but the extent of the yellow brown to orange area varies.

Illustrations.

#56. C-band and S-band <connection>/

1. separated <by hyaline band from cell bm to costal margin in cell r1>/

2. connected <along vein R4+5 or vein R2+3, cell r1 with basomarginal hyaline spot>/

3. connected along costal margin <connection may extend to vein R4+5>/

The C-band, or costal band, extends from the base of the wing along the anterior margin to the apex of vein R1. The S-band extends obliquely from the base of cell cu1 across r-m, reaching the anterior wing margin in cell r1, then following the anterior margin to the wing apex.

Illustrations.

#57. Basal hyaline area between C-band and S-band <extent> /

1. extended anteriorly beyond vein R4+5/

2. extended to vein R4+5/

3. extended into cell br but not reaching vein R4+5/

4. not extended into cell br <at most hyaline area(s) present in cells bm and dm>/

5. absent/

The C-band, or costal band, extends from the base of the wing along the anterior margin to the apex of vein R1. The S-band extends obliquely from the base of cell cu1 across r-m, reaching the anterior wing margin in cell r1, then following the anterior margin to the wing apex. They are usually separated basally by a hyaline area of varying size, extending from cell bm, sometimes all the way to the anterior wing margin in cell r1.

Illustrations.

#58. Cell r1 basomarginal hyaline spot <shape>/

1. triangular to quadrate/

2. distal side narrowly elongated along costa/

3. semicircular to subovoid/

4. irregular, diffuse/

The C-band, or costal band, extends from the base of the wing along the anterior margin to the apex of vein R1. The S-band extends obliquely from the base of cell cu1 across r-m, reaching the anterior wing margin in cell r1, then following the anterior margin to the wing apex. When the C-band and S-bands are connected along veins R2+3 or R4+5, they are usually separated along the costa by a basomarginal hyaline spot in cell r1, immediately distal to the apex of vein R1.

Illustrations.

#59. Cell r1 basomarginal hyaline spot <alignment>/

1. apex aligned proximal to crossvein r-m/

2. apex aligned with crossvein r-m/

3. apex aligned distal to crossvein r-m/

The C-band, or costal band, extends from the base of the wing along the anterior margin to the apex of vein R1. The S-band extends obliquely from the base of cell cu1 across r-m, reaching the anterior wing margin in cell r1, then following the anterior margin to the wing apex. When the C-band and S-bands are connected along veins R2+3 or R4+5, they are usually separated along the costa by a basomarginal hyaline spot in cell r1, immediately distal to the apex of vein R1. Crossvein r-m is a short transverse vein connecting veins R4+5 and M near the middle of the wing.

Illustrations.

#60. S-band <extent of middle section>/

1. extended anteriorly to vein R4+5 and covering all of crossvein r-m/

2. not extended anteriorly to vein R4+5 and not covering all of crossvein r-m/

The S-band extends obliquely from the base of cell cu1 across r-m, reaching the anterior wing margin in cell r1, then following the anterior margin to the wing apex. The basal part in cell cu1 and the distal part on the margin of the radial cells are almost always present, but the middle section is sometimes interrupted or absent.

Illustrations.

#61. Cell bm <color>/

1. entirely hyaline or infuscated only along subapical fold/

2. posterior third to half infuscated/

3. infuscated distally/

4. entirely infuscated/

Cell bm is the small elongate triangular cell near the base of the wing between veins M and Cu1 and crossvein bm-cu.

Illustrations.

#62. S-band posterior margin <incision in cell cu1>/

1. without incision in cell cu1/

2. with weak incision in cell cu1/

3. with distinct incision in cell cu1/

The S-band extends obliquely from the base of cell cu1 across r-m, reaching the anterior wing margin in cell r1, then following the anterior margin to the wing apex. The basal part sometimes has an incision or indentation in the posterior margin in the middle of cell cu1. Teneral specimens of species that lack the incision often have a similar pale area in the base of the S-band and should be scored with caution.

Illustrations.

#63. S-band base <with extension in middle of cell cu1 to posterior wing margin>/

1. without extension in middle of cell cu1 to posterior wing margin/

2. with extension in middle of cell cu1 to or almost to posterior wing margin/

The S-band extends obliquely from the base of cell cu1 across r-m, reaching the anterior wing margin in cell r1, then following the anterior margin to the wing apex. The basal part sometimes has an extension to or almost to the posterior wing margin in the middle of cell cu1. The extension may be connected to the proximal arm of the V-band along the posterior wing margin.

Illustrations.

#64. S-band base <with extension in cell a1 to or almost to posterior margin>/

1. without extension in cell a1 to or almost to posterior margin/

2. with extension in cell a1 to or almost to posterior margin/

The S-band extends obliquely from the base of cell cu1 across r-m, reaching the anterior wing margin in cell r1, then following the anterior margin to the wing apex. The basal part in cell cu1 and the distal part on the margin of the radial cells are almost always present, but the middle section is sometimes interrupted or absent. The basal part sometimes has a posterior extension to or almost to the posterior wing margin in cell a1.

Illustrations.

#65. Cubital streak (isolated base of S-band) <in cell bcu>/

1. entirely covering cell bcu/

2. covering at most anterior 2/3 of cell bcu, posterior third or more of bcu hyaline or faintly infuscated/

The S-band extends obliquely from the base of cell cu1 across r-m, reaching the anterior wing margin in cell r1, then following the anterior margin to the wing apex. In some species the middle part of the band is absent, leaving an isolated basal part that often extends along veins Cu1 and/or A1+Cu2 or in cell cu1.

Illustrations.

#66. Cubital streak (isolated base of S-band) <extension along vein Cu1>/

1. bordering base of vein Cu1 but not extending to dm-cu/

2. extending at most slightly beyond bm-cu/

3. extending, sometimes faintly, along both sides of vein Cu1 to dm-cu/

4. extending along posterior side only of vein Cu1 to dm-cu <only in cell cu1>/

The S-band extends obliquely from the base of cell cu1 across r-m, reaching the anterior wing margin in cell r1, then following the anterior margin to the wing apex. In some species the middle part of the band is absent, leaving an isolated basal part that often extends along veins Cu1 and/or A1+Cu2 or in cell cu1.

Illustrations.

#67. S-band middle section <color between R4+5 and costa>/

1. predominantly or entirely orange, often with brown margins/

2. entirely brown/

The S-band extends obliquely from the base of cell cu1 across r-m, reaching the anterior wing margin in cell r1, then following the anterior margin to the wing apex.

Illustrations.

#68. Subapical hyaline area in radial cells distal to r-m /

1. extending anteriorly into cell r1/

2. extending anteriorly to vein R2+3/

3. extending into cell r2+3 but not reaching vein R2+3/

4. S-band entirely covering cell r2+3 distal to r-m <pattern sometimes diffuse yellowish, but no distinct hyaline area present>/

The S-band extends obliquely from the base of cell cu1 across r-m, reaching the anterior wing margin in cell r1, then following the anterior margin to the wing apex. The V-band includes two arms which are frequently connected anteriorly to form an inverted V. The proximal arm covers crossvein dm-cu. The distal arm extends obliquely across cell r4+5 and the distal part of cell m. It is reduced or absent more frequently than the proximal arm. Distally between the S-band and V-band there is usually a hyaline area extending from the posterior margin of the wing in cells m and r4+5.

Illustrations.

#69. S-band distal section <marginal hyaline areas>/

1. without marginal hyaline band or spots in cell r2+3 or near apices of R2+3 or R4+5/

2. with very narrow marginal hyaline band in cell r2+3 or with small marginal hyaline spot(s) near apices of veins R2+3 and/or R4+5/

The S-band extends obliquely from the base of cell cu1 across r-m, reaching the anterior wing margin in cell r1, then following the anterior margin to the wing apex. In a few species there are narrow hyaline areas along the costa near the apices of veins R2+3 or R4+5.

Illustrations.

#70. S-band distally <extended to apex of vein M>/

1. extended to apex of vein M/

2. not extended to apex of vein M/

The S-band extends obliquely from the base of cell cu1 across r-m, reaching the anterior wing margin in cell r1, then following the anterior margin to the wing apex. It sometimes extends to the apex of vein M if the band is broad or vein M is strongly curved.

Illustrations.

#71. V-band proximal arm <presence>/

1. as dark as apical half of S-band/

2. absent or diffuse and much paler than apical half of S-band/

3. extremely broad (as wide as length of dm-cu) and dark brown, much darker than C-band and S-band/

The V-band includes two arms which are frequently connected anteriorly to form an inverted V. The proximal arm covers crossvein dm-cu. The distal arm extends obliquely across cell r4+5 and the distal part of cell m.

Illustrations.

#72. V-band proximal arm <extent along posterior wing margin>/

1. extending more than 1/3 distance from apex of vein Cu1 to apex of vein A1+Cu2 <separate from S-band>/

2. connected to extension of base of S-band along vein A1+Cu2/

3. connected to extension of basal part of S-band in cell cu1/

4. extending less than 1/3 distance from apex of vein Cu1 to apex of vein A1+Cu2 <separate from S-band>/

The V-band includes two arms which are frequently connected anteriorly to form an inverted V. The proximal arm covers crossvein dm-cu. It usually extends proximally along the posterior wing margin towards the apex of vein A1+Cu2.

Illustrations.

#73. V-band proximal arm <connection anteriorly to S-band>/

1. not connected anteriorly to S-band/

2. connected anteriorly to S-band along vein R4+5 or in cell r2+3/

3. connected anteriorly to S-band near middle of crossvein r-m/

The V-band includes two arms which are frequently connected anteriorly to form an inverted V. The proximal arm covers crossvein dm-cu and usually extends anteriorly at least into cell r4+5.

Illustrations.

#74. V-band proximal arm <connection to S-band in cell dm>/

1. not connected to S-band in cell dm/

2. connected to S-band in cell dm/

The V-band includes two arms which are frequently connected anteriorly to form an inverted V. The proximal arm covers crossvein dm-cu.

Illustrations.

#75. V-band distal arm <presence>/

1. complete <extended from vein R4+5 to wing margin in apical part of cell m>/

2. incomplete, not reaching vein R4+5, but extended from vein M to wing margin/

3. present only in cell m/

4. anterior part present in cell r4+5, but incomplete in cell m/

5. absent/

The V-band includes two arms which are frequently connected anteriorly to form an inverted V. The proximal arm covers crossvein dm-cu. The distal arm, when fully developed, extends obliquely across cell r4+5 and the distal part of cell m.

Illustrations.

#76. V-band distal arm <connection to other bands>/

1. isolated, not connected to proximal arm of V-band or to S-band/

2. connected to proximal arm of V band/

3. connected to proximal arm of V-band and broadly connected with apical part of S-band/

4. connected to S-band but not proximal arm of V-band/

The V-band includes two arms which are frequently connected anteriorly to form an inverted V. The proximal arm covers crossvein dm-cu. The distal arm, when fully developed, extends obliquely across cell r4+5 and the distal part of cell m.

Illustrations.

#77. Apex of V-band <width>/

1. not extended from vein R4+5 to vein M, hyaline area present between band and vein M/

2. extended from vein R4+5 to vein M, no hyaline area present between band and vein M/

The V-band includes two arms which are frequently connected anteriorly to form an inverted V. The proximal arm covers crossvein dm-cu. The distal arm, when fully developed, extends obliquely across cell r4+5 and the distal part of cell m. The arms may be separated or narrowly to broadly connected.

Illustrations.

#78. S-band distal section width ratio (width of S-band/width of cell r2+3, both measured perpendicular to costal margin at apex of vein R2+3)/

The S-band extends obliquely from the base of cell cu1 across r-m, reaching the anterior wing margin in cell r1, then following the anterior margin to the wing apex. This ratio is the width of the S-band at the apex of vein R2+3 divided by the width of cell r2+3, both measured perpendicular to the long axis of the band and the costal margin at the apex of R2+3. The width of the distal section of the band and the width of cell r2+3 are measured along the same line, both measurements including the width of the costa (i.e., the measurements begin on the external margin of the costa). The ratio cannot exceed 1.0.

Illustrations.

#79. Area surrounding apex of lobe of cell bcu <microtrichia>/

1. with microtrichia similar in density to area anterdistal to it along vein Cu1/

2. with large oval area of very dense microtrichia/

Microtrichia are hairlike projections of the cuticle that do not have an alveolus. They should not be confused with setae or setulae, which have an alveolus. Microtrichia are usually minute and cannot be seen individually except with high powered microscopes or scanning electron microscopes. They occur in patterns so that some surface areas may appear duller or pruinose versus shiny areas that lack them. Cell bcu (= cell cup, "anal cell"), the basal cubital cell, is the basal wing cell bounded anteriorly by the base of vein Cu, apically by vein Cu2, and posteriorly by vein A1. In most Tephritidae, vein Cu2 is concave or has a distinct bend, forming an acute posteroapical extension or lobe on cell bcu.

Illustrations.

#80. Area between S-band and V-band <microtrichia in cells dm and cu1>/

1. entirely microtrichose in cells dm and cu1/

2. with small nonmicrotrichose area in cell dm posteriorly/

3. with large nonmicrotrichose areas in cells dm and cu1/

Microtrichia are hairlike projections of the cuticle that do not have an alveolus. They should not be confused with setae or setulae, which have an alveolus. Microtrichia are usually minute and cannot be seen individually except with high powered microscopes or scanning electron microscopes. They occur in patterns so that some surface areas may appear duller or pruinose versus shiny areas that lack them. The S-band extends obliquely from the base of cell cu1 across r-m, reaching the anterior wing margin in cell r1, then following the anterior margin to the wing apex. The V-band includes two arms which are frequently connected anteriorly to form an inverted V. The proximal arm covers crossvein dm-cu. The distal arm extends obliquely across cell r4+5 and the distal part of cell m. Cell dm is located in the approximate middle third of the wing between veins M and Cu1 and crossveins bm-cu and dm-cu. Cell cu1 is posterior to vein Cu1 distal to cell bcu.

Illustrations.

#81. Cell c: pterostigma ratio (cell c length/pterostigma length)/

Cell c is a small rectangular cell on the anterior margin of the wing between the costa and vein Sc. It is bordered basally by crossvein h. The pterostigma is the somewhat triangular apical part of cell sc, between the apical bend of vein Sc, the costa, and vein R1. It is often more opaque than surrounding membranous areas of the wing. The length of cell c is measured from the level of crossvein h where it meets the costa to the level of the apex of vein Sc. The length of the pterostigma is measured from the level of the apex of vein Sc to the level of the apex of vein R1. Their ratio is the length of cell c divided by that of the pterostigma.

Illustrations.

#82. Pterostigma ratio <length/width>/

The pterostigma is the somewhat triangular apical part of cell sc, between the apical bend of vein Sc, the costa, and vein R1. It is often more opaque than surrounding membranous areas of the wing. The length of the pterostigma is measured from the level of the apex of vein Sc to the level of the apex of vein R1. Its width is measured from the costa to vein R1 at its greatest dimension. The pterostigma ratio is its length divided by its width.

Illustrations.

#83. Ratio of costa length between apices of Sc and R1/length between apices of R1 and R2+3/

Illustrations.

#84. Vein R1 ratio (distance from wing base to apex of R1/wing length)/

Vein R1 is the second longitudinal vein from the anterior margin of the wing. It ends in the middle third of the wing and its dorsal side is setulose. The vein R1 ratio is the distance from the base of the costa to the apex of vein R1 divided by the wing length, measured from the base of the costa to the wing apex in cell r4+5.

Illustrations.

#85. Vein R2+3 <shape>/

1. not sinuous/

2. slightly sinuous/

3. strongly sinuous/

Vein R2+3 is the third longitudinal vein from the anterior margin of the wing. It and vein R4+5 are branches of the radial sector (Rs). It ends in the distal fourth of the wing where it meets the costa.

Illustrations.

#86. Vein R2+3 <anteriorly-directed accessory vein>/

1. without accessory vein/

2. with anteriorly-directed accessory vein/

Vein R2+3 is the third longitudinal vein from the anterior margin of the wing. It and vein R4+5 are branches of the radial sector (Rs). It ends in the distal fourth of the wing where it meets the costa.

Illustrations.

#87. Vein R4+5 distal to crossvein r-m <shape>/

1. more or less evenly curved or not strongly bowed medially/

2. strongly bowed slightly distal to level of anterior end of crossvein dm-cu/

Vein R4+5 is the fourth longitudinal vein from the anterior margin of the wing. It and vein R2+3 are branches of the radial sector (Rs). It ends slightly anterior to the tip of the wing where it meets the costa.

Illustrations.

#88. Vein M ratio (distance from bm-cu to r-m/distance from bm-cu to dm-cu)/

Vein M is the longitudinal vein that ends slightly posterior to the apex of the wing. Crossvein r-m extends between veins R4+5 and M, whereas crossveins bm-cu and dm-cu extend between veins M and Cu1. The vein M ratio is the distance from the junction of bm-cu and M to that of r-m and M divided by the distance from the junction of bm-cu and M to that of dm-cu and M.

Illustrations.

#89. Vein M curvature ratio (width of cell r4+5 at apex/width at level of dm-cu)/

Veins R4+5 and M are the longitudinal veins that end near the apex of the wing. Vein R4+5 ends slightly anterior to the wing apex. Vein M ends slightly posterior to the wing apex and its apex is anteriorly curved to varying degrees in most species of Anastrepha. Cell r4+5 lies between these veins. The amount of curvature of vein M is indicated by the ratio of the width of cell r4+5 at its apex divided by its width at crossvein dm-cu. The former is measured from the apex of vein R4+5 to that of vein M (where M reaches the wing margin), and the latter is measured directly anterior to vein dm-cu.

Illustrations.

#90. Cell bcu ratio (length/anterior margin length along vein Cu)/

Cell bcu (=cell cup, anal cell) is a small cell near the base of the wing. It is bordered by vein Cu anteriorly, by vein A1 posteriorly, and by vein Cu2 distally. In Anastrepha and Toxotrypana, vein Cu2 has a sharp bend, such that cell bcu has an elongate posterodistal lobe. The ratio of cell bcu is its total length, measured from its base at the juction of veins Cu and A1 to the apex of the posterodistal lobe, divided by the length of its anterior margin measured along vein Cu.

Illustrations.

#91. Cell bcu posteroapical lobe <length> /

1. shorter than vein A1+Cu2/

2. longer than vein A1+Cu2/

Illustrations.

#92. Cell bcu posteroapical lobe length/length of vein A1+Cu2/

Cell bcu (=cell cup, anal cell) is a small cell near the base of the wing. It is bordered by vein Cu anteriorly, by vein A1 posteriorly, and by vein Cu2 distally. In Anastrepha and Toxotrypana, vein Cu2 has a sharp bend, such that cell bcu has an elongate posterodistal lobe. Vein A1+Cu2 runs from the apex of the posterodistal lobe to the wing margin.

Illustrations.

#93. Costa in male <setation>/

1. with setulae on anterior margin between crossvein h and apex of vein R1 similar to other setulae/

2. with 2–3 rows of setulae on anterior margin between crossvein h and apex of vein R1 much stouter than setulae on dorsal and ventral sides and more distally/

The costa is the vein along the anterior margin of the wing.

Illustrations.

#94. Crossvein dm-cu orientation/

1. with anterior end more distal than posterior end/

2. with posterior end more distal than anterior end/

Crossvein dm-cu is a relatively short, more or less transverse vein that connects veins M and Cu1 at approximately the distal third of the wing. Vein M is a longitudinal vein that ends slightly posterior to the wing apex. It apex is anteriorly curved to varying degrees in most species of Anastrepha. Vein Cu1 is the next longitudinal vein posterior to vein M.

Illustrations.

Abdomen

#95. Abdomen <shape>/

1. ovate or parallel-sided, syntergite 1+2 gradually broadening or parallel-sided/

2. petiolate, syntergite 1+2 with basal part narrow and parallel-sided and apical part distinctly broader/

The abdomen is the most posterior of the three main body parts of a fly. It attaches anteriorly to the thorax. In female Tephritidae the distal segments are modified to form an ovipositor, of which the most basal part, the tubular or conical oviscape, is usually obvious.

Illustrations.

#96. Abdominal tergite <brown markings>/

1. without brown markings/

2. with brown markings/

The abdominal tergites are the more or less rectangular dorsal sclerites of the abdominal segments. In Tephritidae there are five in the male and six in the female.

Illustrations.

#97. Abdominal tergites <brown marking pattern>/

1. at least with syntergite 1+2 with dark brown band <tergites 3–5 may be banded, have lateral brown marks, or be mostly brown with triangular or trapezoidal medial yellow areas>/

2. 1+2, 3 and 4 with diffuse moderate brown sublateral mark on distal half/

3. 3–5 with sublateral or lateral dark brown spots or short bands/

4. without brown markings except tergite 3 on lateral third to fourth with brown band on anterior half/

5. dark brown on anterior half of tergites 3 and 4 and lateral third of tergite 5/

6. with all of tergite 5 and lateral margins of other tergites brown/

7. without brown markings except most of tergite 5/

8. mostly brown with somewhat T-shaped medial yellow or white area/

9. mostly brown with medial yellow vitta/

The abdominal tergites are the more or less rectangular dorsal sclerites of the abdominal segments. In Tephritidae there are five in the male and six in the female.

Illustrations.

#98. Abdominal tergites <microtrichia pattern>/

1. evenly microtrichose/

2. microtrichose except tergites 3–5 with nonmicrotrichose band at midlength on lateral 1/3–2/5/

3. mostly nonmicrotrichose except basal half of syntergite 1+2 and basal margins of other tergites/

4. with broad medial vitta of denser microtrichia, producing silvery appearance at certain angles/

5. with dense silvery white microtrichia on white areas, nonmicrotrichose on brown lateral areas of tergite 5/

The vestiture, or hairlike projections of the cuticle, in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana include macrotrichia (setae or setulae), which have an alveolus (socket), and microtrichia, which do not have an alveolus. Microtrichia are usually extremely small and cannot be seen individually except with high powered microscopes or scanning electron microscopes. They occur in patterns so that some surface areas may appear duller or pruinose versus shiny areas that lack them. Microtrichial patterns are very difficult if not impossible to see in specimens in fluid. On dry specimens they are best observed with the surface held at an oblique angle to the light source. The abdominal tergites are the more or less rectangular dorsal sclerites of the abdominal segments. In Tephritidae there are five in the male and six in the female.

Illustrations.

#99. <Sex of specimen being identified:>/

1. male/

2. female/

Male and female Tephritidae are readily distinguished by their terminalia (apical parts of abdomen). In the male, tergite 5 is elongate and segments 6–8 are reduced. The epandrium and surstyli form an inverted U-shaped structure located ventral to the apex of the abdomen. The phallus, a long, slender organ, originates between the epandium and hypandrium on the ventral side, but most of it is usually coiled and at rest is located between the epandrium and tergite 5, but it can be extruded. In the female tergite 7 and sternite 7 are fused to form a tubular or conical oviscape. The eversible membrane and aculeus (formed from segment 8 and the fused cerci) telescope inside the oviscape.

Illustrations.

#100. Epandrium posterodorsal margin/

1. evenly rounded/

2. with narrow, V-shaped, medial indentation/

3. produced medially/

The epandrium and surstyli form an inverted U-shaped structure located ventral to the apex of the abdomen. The epandrium is the dorsal part of this structure.

Illustrations.

#101. Epandrium in lateral view <length>/

1. shorter than high/

2. longer than high/

The epandrium and surstyli form an inverted U-shaped structure located ventral to the apex of the abdomen. The epandrium is the dorsal part of this structure.

Illustrations.

#102. Lateral surstylus in posterior view <basolateral lobe>/

1. without basolateral lobe/

2. with small to moderate basolateral lobe/

3. with well developed basolateral lobe/

The epandrium and surstyli form an inverted U-shaped structure located ventral to the apex of the abdomen. The surstyli are the ventral, lobelike parts of this structure.There are two pairs, but they are closely associated in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana and appear to be a single pair. The medial surstylus is shorter and bears a pair of toothlike, dark, stout prensisetae. The lateral surstylus is usually longer and varies considerably in shape and length among Anastrepha and Toxotrypana species.

Illustrations.

#103. Lateral surstylus in posterior view <shape>/

1. very short, barely extended beyond prensisetae, rounded apically/

2. short, acute apically <schultzi shape>/

3. short, rounded apically <bezzii/grandis shape>/

4. short and narrow, posterolaterally projected, rounded apically <punctata shape>/

5. long, inner side concave apically <nunezae shape>/

6. long, slightly tapered, somewhat truncate apically <fraterculus shape>/

7. long, inner side convex, outer side concave <spatulata shape>/

8. long, inner side convex, outer side projected medially, extreme apex sharply curved posteriorly <striata shape>/

9. long, more or less acute apically <serpentina shape>/

10. long, somewhat paddle-shaped, broad and truncate apically <ornata shape>/

11. long, rounded apically <chiclayae shape>/

The epandrium and surstyli form an inverted U-shaped structure located ventral to the apex of the abdomen. The surstyli are the ventral, lobelike parts of this structure.There are two pairs, but they are closely associated in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana and appear to be a single pair. The medial surstylus is shorter and bears a pair of toothlike, dark, stout prensisetae. The lateral surstylus is usually longer and varies considerably in shape and length among Anastrepha and Toxotrypana species.

Illustrations.

#104. Lateral surstylus in posterior view <boot-shaped>/

1. not boot-shaped/

2. short, somewhat boot-shaped, truncate and with apex slightly laterally projected/

The epandrium and surstyli form an inverted U-shaped structure located ventral to the apex of the abdomen. The surstyli are the ventral, lobelike parts of this structure.There are two pairs, but they are closely associated in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana and appear to be a single pair. The medial surstylus is shorter and bears a pair of toothlike, dark, stout prensisetae. The lateral surstylus is usually longer and varies considerably in shape and length among Anastrepha and Toxotrypana species.

Illustrations.

#105. Surstylus in posterior view with lateral margin <shape>/

1. convex/

2. straight/

3. concave/

The epandrium and surstyli form an inverted U-shaped structure located ventral to the apex of the abdomen. The surstyli are the ventral, lobelike parts of this structure.There are two pairs, but they are closely associated in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana and appear to be a single pair. The medial surstylus is shorter and bears a pair of toothlike, dark, stout prensisetae. The lateral surstylus is usually longer and varies considerably in shape and length among Anastrepha and Toxotrypana species.

Illustrations.

#106. Surstylus in posterior view with mesal margin <shape>/

1. convex/

2. straight/

3. concave/

The epandrium and surstyli form an inverted U-shaped structure located ventral to the apex of the abdomen. The surstyli are the ventral, lobelike parts of this structure.There are two pairs, but they are closely associated in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana and appear to be a single pair. The medial surstylus is shorter and bears a pair of toothlike, dark, stout prensisetae. The lateral surstylus is usually longer and varies considerably in shape and length among Anastrepha and Toxotrypana species.

Illustrations.

#107. Lateral surstylus in lateral view <shape> /

1. flattened, slightly curved, apex acute/

2. short, apex blunt/

The epandrium and surstyli form an inverted U-shaped structure located ventral to the apex of the abdomen. The surstyli are the ventral, lobelike parts of this structure.There are two pairs, but they are closely associated in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana and appear to be a single pair. The medial surstylus is shorter and bears a pair of toothlike, dark, stout prensisetae. The lateral surstylus is usually longer and varies considerably in shape and length among Anastrepha and Toxotrypana species.

Illustrations.

#108. Phallus length/

mm/

The phallus originates on the ventral side of the abdomen between the epandrium and hypandrium. It usually is long and slender (except in species of the daciformis and dentata groups), and at rest the apical part is coiled and placed between tergite 5 and the rest of the male terminalia. It must be extended to measure its length, by gently holding and pulling both ends.

Illustrations.

#109. Phallus length ratio (phallus length/mesonotum length)/

The phallus originates on the ventral side of the abdomen between the epandrium and hypandrium. It usually is long and slender (except in species of the daciformis and dentata groups), and at rest the apical part is coiled and placed between tergite 5 and the rest of the male terminalia. It must be extended to measure its length, by gently holding and pulling both ends.. Measure the mesonotum in dorsal view along its midline, from the anterior margin of the scutum to the apex of the scutellum.

Illustrations.

#110. Glans <presence>/

1. present/

2. absent/

The phallus originates on the ventral side of the abdomen between the epandrium and hypandrium. It usually is long and slender (except in species of the daciformis and dentata groups), and at rest the apical part is coiled and placed between tergite 5 and the rest of the male terminalia. The glans is the expanded, apical part of the phallus, which must be extended to observe the glans.

Illustrations.

#111. Glans <spination>/

1. without spinules/

2. with minute spinules apically/

The phallus originates on the ventral side of the abdomen between the epandrium and hypandrium. It usually is long and slender (except in species of the daciformis and dentata groups), and at rest the apical part is coiled and placed between tergite 5 and the rest of the male terminalia. The glans is the expanded, apical part of the phallus, which must be extended to observe the glans.

Illustrations.

#112. Proctiger <sclerotization>/

1. lateral and ventral sclerotized areas separate, lateral areas separate dorsally/

2. lateral and ventral sclerotized areas connected, lateral areas separate dorsally/

3. lateral and ventral sclerotized areas connected, lateral areas connected dorsally/

The proctiger is the baglike, mostly membranous structure posterior to the epandrium. The ventral and lateral sides are lightly sclerotized, and these sclerotized areas may be connected or separate. In a few species the sclerotization is continuous and connects dorsally.

Illustrations.

#113. Oviscape <color>/

1. entirely yellow to orange brown/

2. at least apex brown/

The oviscape is the elongate, tubular or conical, basal part of the ovipositor. It is formed from the fused tergite and sternite of segment 7. It bears a pair of spiracles laterally, and a pair of flangelike lobes basolaterally.

Illustrations.

#114. Oviscape <curvature in lateral view>/

1. straight/

2. strongly dorsally arched/

The oviscape is the elongate, tubular or conical, basal part of the ovipositor. It is formed from the fused tergite and sternite of segment 7. It bears a pair of spiracles laterally, and a pair of flangelike lobes basolaterally. Its curvature should be observed in lateral view.

Illustrations.

#115. Oviscape length <in ventral view>/

mm/

The oviscape is the elongate, tubular or conical, basal part of the ovipositor. It is formed from the fused tergite and sternite of segment 7. It bears a pair of spiracles laterally, and a pair of flangelike lobes basolaterally. Its length is measured ventrally along the midline.

[range for species with limited data estimated 20% of mean length]

Illustrations.

#116. Oviscape length ratio (oviscape length/mesonotum length)/

The oviscape is the elongate, tubular or conical, basal part of the ovipositor. It is formed from the fused tergite and sternite of segment 7. It bears a pair of spiracles laterally, and a pair of flangelike lobes basolaterally. Its length is measured ventrally along the midline. The mesonotum is the dorsal side of the thorax. It is measured in dorsal view along its midline, from the anterior margin of the scutum to the apex of the scutellum.

Illustrations.

#117. Oviscape spiracle ratio (distance from base to spiracle/oviscape length)/

The oviscape is the elongate, tubular or conical, basal part of the ovipositor. It is formed from the fused tergite and sternite of segment 7. It bears a pair of spiracles laterally, and a pair of flangelike lobes basolaterally. Its length is measured ventrally along the midline. The spiracle ratio is the distance from the base to the level of the spiracles divided by the length of the oviscape.

Illustrations.

#118. Oviscape spiracle ratio to mesonotum length (distance from base to spiracle/mesonotum length)/

The oviscape is the elongate, tubular or conical, basal part of the ovipositor. It is formed from the fused tergite and sternite of segment 7. It bears a pair of spiracles laterally, and a pair of flangelike lobes basolaterally. The spiracle ratio to mesonotum length is the distance from the base of the oviscape to the level of the spiracles measured ventrally along the midline divided by the length of the mesonotum. The mesonotum is the dorsal side of the thorax. It is measured in dorsal view along its midline, from the anterior margin of the scutum to the apex of the scutellum.

Illustrations.

#119. Eversible membrane with dorsobasal denticles <pattern>/

1. all sclerotized, in continuous triangular to semicircular or suboval pattern/

2. all sclerotized, in triangular to semicircular pattern, but one medial denticle much larger than others/

3. all small, weakly developed, in triangular to semicircular pattern/

4. mostly small and weak, apical row very large, stout, strongly sclerotized, and divided medially/

5. all sclerotized, relatively small, in very elongate pattern/

6. with gap of membranous or no denticles separating apical row(s) from smaller basal denticles/

The eversible membrane is the mostly membranous middle section of the ovipositor. It is between the ovicape and the aculeus, and it and the aculeus can be retracted into the oviscape. If it is not everted, the terminalia must be dissected to examine the eversible membrane. Subbasally on the dorsal side in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana, the eversible membrane bears a group of denticles of which at least some usually are large, sclerotized, and hooklike. These denticles occur in various patterns, with those toward the distal end typically largest.

Illustrations.

#120. Eversible membrane with <number of large dorsobasal denticles>/

denticles/

The eversible membrane is the mostly membranous middle section of the ovipositor. It is between the ovicape and the aculeus, and it and the aculeus can be retracted into the oviscape. If it is not everted, the terminalia must be dissected to examine the eversible membrane. Subbasally on the dorsal side in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana, the eversible membrane bears a group of denticles of which at least some usually are large, sclerotized, and hooklike. These denticles occur in various patterns, with those toward the distal end typically largest.

Illustrations.

#121. Eversible membrane, subbasally on ventral side <cluster of hairs>/

1. without cluster of hairs/

2. with dense cluster of hairs/

The eversible membrane is the mostly membranous middle section of the ovipositor. It is between the ovicape and the aculeus, and it and the aculeus can be retracted into the oviscape. If it is not everted, the terminalia must be dissected to examine the eversible membrane. Subbasally on the dorsal side in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana, the eversible membrane bears a group of denticles of which at least some usually are large, sclerotized, and hooklike. Opposite these denticles on the ventral side the membrane usually bears only minute, simple denticles.

Illustrations.

#122. Aculeus length/

mm/

The aculeus is the elongate, sclerotized, apical part of the ovipositor. Its base is attached to the eversible membrane and these can be retracted into the oviscape. If the aculeus is not everted or visible through the oviscape as is sometimes possible in specimens in alcohol, the terminalia must be dissected to examine the aculeus. Its length is measured from its base, where it connects to the eversible membrane, to its extreme apex.

[range for species with limited data estimated 20% of mean length]

Illustrations.

#123. Aculeus length/oviscape length <in ventral view>/

The aculeus is the elongate, sclerotized, apical part of the ovipositor. Its base is attached to the eversible membrane and these can be retracted into the oviscape. If the aculeus is not everted or visible through the oviscape as is sometimes possible in specimens in alcohol, the terminalia must be dissected to examine the aculeus. Its length is measured from its base, where it connects to the eversible membrane, to its extreme apex. The oviscape is the elongate, tubular or conical, basal part of the ovipositor. It is formed from the fused tergite and sternite of segment 7. It bears a pair of spiracles laterally, and a pair of flangelike lobes basolaterally. Its length is measured ventrally along the midline.

Illustrations.

#124. Aculeus in ventral view <shape>/

1. more or less parallel-sided except extreme base/

2. tapering gradually in basal half/

3. convoluted/

The aculeus is the elongate, sclerotized, apical part of the ovipositor. Its base is attached to the eversible membrane and these can be retracted into the oviscape. If the aculeus is not everted or visible through the oviscape as is sometimes possible in specimens in alcohol, the terminalia must be dissected to examine the aculeus. Its shape should be observed in ventral view.

Illustrations.

#125. Aculeus in lateral view <shape>/

1. straight or ventrally curved/

2. dorsally curved/

The aculeus is the elongate, sclerotized, apical part of the ovipositor. Its base is attached to the eversible membrane and these can be retracted into the oviscape. If the aculeus is not everted or visible through the oviscape as is sometimes possible in specimens in alcohol, the terminalia must be dissected to examine the aculeus. The ventral side of the aculeus can be recognized by the cloacal opening and 8th sternites.

Illustrations.

#126. Aculeus tip length/aculeus length/

The aculeus is the elongate, sclerotized, apical part of the ovipositor. Its base is attached to the eversible membrane and these can be retracted into the oviscape. If the aculeus tip is not everted, the aculeus must be dissected to examine the tip. The aculeus consists of an elongate 8th tergite, a pair of slender, elongate 8th sternites, which are often difficult to see, and the cerci and intermediate parts which are fused to the 8th tergite. The aculeus tip is the apical part of the aculeus, distal to the apices of the 8th sternites and the cloacal opening. Its length is measured on the ventral side from the inner margin of the sclerotized area just distal to the cloacal opening to the extreme apex of the aculeus.

Illustrations.

#127. Aculeus tip length/

mm/

The aculeus is the elongate, sclerotized, apical part of the ovipositor. Its base is attached to the eversible membrane and these can be retracted into the oviscape. If the aculeus tip is not everted, the aculeus must be dissected to examine the tip. The aculeus consists of an elongate 8th tergite, a pair of slender, elongate 8th sternites, which are often difficult to see, and the cerci and intermediate parts which are fused to the 8th tergite. The aculeus tip is the apical part of the aculeus, distal to the apices of the 8th sternites and the cloacal opening. Its length is measured on the ventral side from the inner margin of the sclerotized area just distal to the cloacal opening to the extreme apex of the aculeus.

Illustrations.

#128. Aculeus tip width/

mm/

The aculeus is the elongate, sclerotized, apical part of the ovipositor. Its base is attached to the eversible membrane and these can be retracted into the oviscape. If the aculeus tip is not everted, the aculeus must be dissected to examine the tip. The aculeus consists of an elongate 8th tergite, a pair of slender, elongate 8th sternites, which are often difficult to see, and the cerci and intermediate parts which are fused to the 8th tergite. The aculeus tip is the apical part of the aculeus, distal to the apices of the 8th sternites and the cloacal opening. Its width is measured on the ventral side at the broadest part at distal to the level of the cloacal opening.

Illustrations.

#129. Aculeus tip length/width in ventral view/

The aculeus is the elongate, sclerotized, apical part of the ovipositor. Its base is attached to the eversible membrane and these can be retracted into the oviscape. If the aculeus tip is not everted, the aculeus must be dissected to examine the tip. The aculeus consists of an elongate 8th tergite, a pair of slender, elongate 8th sternites, which are often difficult to see, and the cerci and intermediate parts which are fused to the 8th tergite. The aculeus tip is the apical part of the aculeus, distal to the apices of the 8th sternites and the cloacal opening. Its length is measured on the ventral side from the inner margin of the sclerotized area just distal to the cloacal opening to the extreme apex of the aculeus. Its width is measured on the ventral side at the broadest part at or distal to the level of the cloacal opening.

Illustrations.

#130. Aculeus tip depth (width in lateral view)/width (in ventral view)/

The aculeus is the elongate, sclerotized, apical part of the ovipositor. Its base is attached to the eversible membrane and these can be retracted into the oviscape. If the aculeus tip is not everted, the aculeus must be dissected to examine the tip. The aculeus consists of an elongate 8th tergite, a pair of slender, elongate 8th sternites, which are often difficult to see, and the cerci and intermediate parts which are fused to the 8th tergite. The aculeus tip is the apical part of the aculeus, distal to the apices of the 8th sternites and the cloacal opening. Its depth is measured in lateral view at the broadest part at or distal to the level of the cloacal opening.

Illustrations.

#131. Aculeus tip <lateral margins curved dorsally>/

1. lateral margins not curved dorsally/

2. lateral margins curved dorsally/

3. with serrations strongly displaced dorsally, forming ridge separate from lateral margin/

The aculeus is the elongate, sclerotized, apical part of the ovipositor. Its base is attached to the eversible membrane and these can be retracted into the oviscape. If the aculeus tip is not everted, the aculeus must be dissected to examine the tip. The aculeus consists of an elongate 8th tergite, a pair of slender, elongate 8th sternites, which are often difficult to see, and the cerci and intermediate parts which are fused to the 8th tergite. The aculeus tip is the apical part of the aculeus, distal to the apices of the 8th sternites and the cloacal opening. In most species the lateral margins of the tip are in the [??] plane, but in some species they are curved dorsally.

Illustrations.

#132. Aculeus tip <shape in ventral view>/

1. blunt/

2. gradually tapering, blade-like, with flattened cross-section/

3. slender, needle-like, with circular cross-section/

4. tapered, then triangular/

5. parallel-sided, then triangular/

6. expanded, then triangular/

7. triangular/

8. spatulate/

9. tapered basally, then parallel-sided, then gradually tapered/

10. gradually tapering, but with medial constriction/

11. slender, with extreme apex sagittate/

12. tapered basally, lateral margin concave/

The aculeus is the elongate, sclerotized, apical part of the ovipositor. Its base is attached to the eversible membrane and these can be retracted into the oviscape. If the aculeus tip is not everted, the aculeus must be dissected to examine the tip. The aculeus consists of an elongate 8th tergite, a pair of slender, elongate 8th sternites, which are often difficult to see, and the cerci and intermediate parts which are fused to the 8th tergite. The aculeus tip is the apical part of the aculeus, distal to the apices of the 8th sternites and the cloacal opening. The shape of the tip in ventral view varies greatly among Anastrepha and Toxotrypana species.

Illustrations.

#133. Aculeus tip <flared at or proximal to base, ventral view>/

1. not flared outward at or proximal to base <sometimes broadening but margin not strongly concave>/

2. flared outward at or proximal to base, lateral margin strongly concave/

The aculeus is the elongate, sclerotized, apical part of the ovipositor. Its base is attached to the eversible membrane and these can be retracted into the oviscape. If the aculeus tip is not everted, the aculeus must be dissected to examine the tip. The aculeus consists of an elongate 8th tergite, a pair of slender, elongate 8th sternites, which are often difficult to see, and the cerci and intermediate parts which are fused to the 8th tergite. The aculeus tip is the apical part of the aculeus, distal to the apices of the 8th sternites and the cloacal opening. In ventral view, the tip may gradually taper from the shaft, but in others the sides flare laterally before tapering.

Illustrations.

#134. Aculeus tip <presence of ridges or lobes> /

1. without ridges or lobes/

2. with 2 V-shaped ridges, 1 dorsal and 1 ventral/

3. with 2 pairs of small lateral protuberances, 1 subbasal, the other at distal fourth to two-fifths, both continuing on dorsal side as weak ridges/

4. with V-shaped ridge(s), in ventral view appearing notched or with small rounded projections laterally on basal half/

5. with basolateral lobe on dorsal side/

6. distal 0.70–0.78 produced ventrally, oval/

The aculeus is the elongate, sclerotized, apical part of the ovipositor. Its base is attached to the eversible membrane and these can be retracted into the oviscape. If the aculeus tip is not everted, the aculeus must be dissected to examine the tip. The aculeus consists of an elongate 8th tergite, a pair of slender, elongate 8th sternites, which are often difficult to see, and the cerci and intermediate parts which are fused to the 8th tergite. The aculeus tip is the apical part of the aculeus, distal to the apices of the 8th sternites and the cloacal opening. The dorsal and ventral surfaces of the tip are relatively smooth in most species, but some species have ridges or lobes.

Illustrations.

#135. Aculeus tip <presence of elongate dorsolateral depressions apically>/

1. without elongate dorsolateral depressions apically/

2. with elongate dorsolateral depressions apically, tip triangular in apical view/

The aculeus is the elongate, sclerotized, apical part of the ovipositor. Its base is attached to the eversible membrane and these can be retracted into the oviscape. If the aculeus tip is not everted, the aculeus must be dissected to examine the tip. The aculeus consists of an elongate 8th tergite, a pair of slender, elongate 8th sternites, which are often difficult to see, and the cerci and intermediate parts which are fused to the 8th tergite. The aculeus tip is the apical part of the aculeus, distal to the apices of the 8th sternites and the cloacal opening. The dorsal surface of the tip is relatively smooth in most species, but some species have dorsolateral depressions.

Illustrations.

#136. Aculeus tip <serration presence, size>/

1. not serrate/

2. with minute serration, visible only with compound microscope/

3. with fine serrations/

4. with medium sized serrations/

5. with large serrations/

6. with exceptionally large serrations/

The aculeus is the elongate, sclerotized, apical part of the ovipositor. Its base is attached to the eversible membrane and these can be retracted into the oviscape. If the aculeus tip is not everted, the aculeus must be dissected to examine the tip. The aculeus consists of an elongate 8th tergite, a pair of slender, elongate 8th sternites, which are often difficult to see, and the cerci and intermediate parts which are fused to the 8th tergite. The aculeus tip is the apical part of the aculeus, distal to the apices of the 8th sternites and the cloacal opening. The lateral margins of the tip in ventral view may be entire (nonserrate) or may bear serrations of various sizes.

Illustrations.

#137. Aculeus serrated part <ratio of length of serrated part to tip length>/

times length of tip/

The aculeus is the elongate, sclerotized, apical part of the ovipositor. Its base is attached to the eversible membrane and these can be retracted into the oviscape. If the aculeus tip is not everted, the aculeus must be dissected to examine the tip. The aculeus consists of an elongate 8th tergite, a pair of slender, elongate 8th sternites, which are often difficult to see, and the cerci and intermediate parts which are fused to the 8th tergite. The aculeus tip is the apical part of the aculeus, distal to the apices of the 8th sternites and the cloacal opening. The lateral margins of the tip, and sometimes extending slightly proximal to the tip, in ventral view may be entire (nonserrate) or may bear serrations of various sizes to varying extents. The length of the serrate part is measured from the most basal serration to the extreme apex of the aculeus. In a few species the serrations, more often the proximal ones, curve onto the dorsal side of the aculeus, and these should be included in the length of the serrate part. The length of the aculeus tip is measured on the ventral side from the inner margin of the sclerotized area just distal to the cloacal opening to the extreme apex of the aculeus.

Illustrations.

#138. Aculeus tip <serrations dorsally>/

1. serrations not extending onto dorsal side basally/

2. serrations extending onto dorsal side basally/

The aculeus is the elongate, sclerotized, apical part of the ovipositor. Its base is attached to the eversible membrane and these can be retracted into the oviscape. If the aculeus tip is not everted, the aculeus must be dissected to examine the tip. The aculeus consists of an elongate 8th tergite, a pair of slender, elongate 8th sternites, which are often difficult to see, and the cerci and intermediate parts which are fused to the 8th tergite. The aculeus tip is the apical part of the aculeus, distal to the apices of the 8th sternites and the cloacal opening. The lateral margins of the tip, and sometimes extending slightly proximal to the tip, in ventral view may be entire (nonserrate) or may bear serrations of various sizes to varying extents. In a few species the serrations extend onto the dorsal side of the aculeus, away from the lateral margin.

Illustrations.

#139. Aculeus tip <serration spacing>/

1. with serrations separated by less than width of serration/

2. with serrations separated by more than width of serration/

The aculeus is the elongate, sclerotized, apical part of the ovipositor. Its base is attached to the eversible membrane and these can be retracted into the oviscape. If the aculeus tip is not everted, the aculeus must be dissected to examine the tip. The aculeus consists of an elongate 8th tergite, a pair of slender, elongate 8th sternites, which are often difficult to see, and the cerci and intermediate parts which are fused to the 8th tergite. The aculeus tip is the apical part of the aculeus, distal to the apices of the 8th sternites and the cloacal opening. The lateral margins of the tip in ventral view may be entire (nonserrate) or may bear serrations of various sizes.

Illustrations.

#140. Spermathecae <sclerotization>/

1. sclerotized/

2. weakly sclerotized/

3. membranous/

#141. Spermathecae <shape> /

1. spherical/

2. ovoid/

3. elongate/

#142. Egg <presence of lobe>/

1. without lobe/

2. with short lobe on anterior end distal to micropyle/

3. with long lobe on anterior end distal to micropyle/

Well developed eggs are often present in the abdomens of female specimens and may be observed if not destroyed in the dissection process. The anterior end of the egg bears the micropyle, a small, nipple-like opening where sperm may enter the egg. Some species have lobes on the anterior end.

Illustrations.

Miscellaneous

#143. Other names for this species:/

#144. Data source:/

#145. Data recording <whether adequate at diaglevel 1; N.B. should eventually reach diaglevel 3>/

1. adequate /

2. inadequate <taxon not separated from 1 other taxon>/

3. very inadequate <taxon not separated from at least 2 other taxa>/

4. a stub <very few characters recorded>/

#146. Sex of recorded specimens:/

1. male/

2. female/

In the male, tergite 5 is elongate and segments 6–8 are reduced. The epandrium and surstyli form an inverted U-shaped structure located ventral to the apex of the abdomen. The phallus, a long, slender organ is usually coiled and located between the epandrium and tergite 5, but it can be extruded. In the female tergite 7 and sternite 7 are fused to form a tubular or conical oviscape. The eversible membrane and aculeus (formed from segment 8 and the fused cerci) telescope inside the oviscape.

#147. Genus:/

1. Anastrepha/

2. Toxotrypana/

#148. <Anastrepha> species group:/

1. benjamini group/

2. caudata group/

3. daciformis group/

4. dentata group/

5. doryphoros group/

6. fraterculus group/

7. grandis group/

8. hastata group/

9. leptozona group/

10. mucronota group/

11. panamensis group/

12. pseudoparallela group/

13. punctata group/

14. ramosa group/

15. raveni group/

16. robusta group, binodosa clade/

17. robusta group, cryptostrepha clade/

18. robusta group, lambda clade/

19. robusta group, robusta clade/

20. robusta group, speciosa clade/

21. robusta group, not assigned to a clade/

22. schausi group/

23. serpentina group/

24. spatulata group/

25. striata group/

26. tripunctata group/

27. not assigned to a species group/

#149. <Biology & economic significance:>/