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Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
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Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz

Anastrepha zenildae Zucchi

Morphology

Body. Setae dark red brown, or dark brown to black.

Head. Frons without brown markings except ocellar tubercle. Occiput without brown marks. Frontal setae 4–6. Orbital setae 2. Ocellar seta weak, small or absent. Gena without brown spot. Facial carina in profile concave or flat on dorsal 2/3. Face with ventral part gradually tapered laterally; without brown markings. Antenna not extended to ventral margin of face. Arista of male without preapical expansion. Palpus in lateral view evenly setulose.

Thorax. Mesonotum length 2.5–3.25 mm (2.7–3.0, Zucchi 1979). Postpronotal, presutural supra-alar, dorsocentral, intra-alar and scutellar setae well developed, subequal to or longer than scutellum length; postpronotal seta on posterior half of postpronotal lobe. Acrostichal seta well developed. Basal scutellar seta strong, longer than scutellum. Mesonotum yellow, or orange. Scutum with 3 (both medial and sublateral) pale postsutural vittae; pale medial vitta with posterior end ovoid; pale sublateral postsutural vitta extended posteriorly to intra-alar seta; without brown vittae. Scutellum entirely yellow or with dark markings only on extreme base of disk. Mesopleuron mostly yellow to orange, without brown markings. Subscutellum yellow to red brown medially, dark brown laterally. Mediotergite yellow to red brown medially, dark brown laterally. Femora entirely yellow to orange. Fore femur with posterodorsal and ventral rows of well developed setae.

Wings. Wing length 6–7 mm (6.3–6.8, Zucchi 1979). Wing pattern typical Anastrepha pattern (S-band complete or at most interrupted at crossvein r-m, C-band and at least proximal arm of V-band present). Cell c mostly or entirely infuscated to subhyaline, or paler posteriorly, without distinct subapical hyaline area. C-band broadly extending to vein M in cell br along cell bm; covering base of cell r2+3; yellow or orange area posterior to pterostigma broad, extending distally into cells r1 and r2+3 at least to level of midlength of pterostigma. C-band and S-band connected (along vein R4+5, cell r1 with basomarginal hyaline spot). Basal hyaline area between C-band and S-band extended to vein R4+5. Cell r1 basomarginal hyaline spot triangular to quadrate. Cell r1 basomarginal hyaline spot apex aligned proximal to crossvein r-m. S-band extended anteriorly to vein R4+5 and covering all of crossvein r-m. Cell bm entirely hyaline or infuscated only along subapical fold. S-band posterior margin without incision in cell cu1. S-band base without extension in middle of cell cu1 to posterior wing margin; without extension in cell a1 to or almost to posterior margin. S-band middle section predominantly or entirely orange, often with brown margins. Subapical hyaline area in radial cells distal to r-m extending anteriorly to vein R2+3. S-band distal section without marginal hyaline band or spots in cell r2+3 or near apices of R2+3 or R4+5. S-band distally not extended to apex of vein M. V-band proximal arm as dark as apical half of S-band; extending more than 1/3 distance from apex of vein Cu1 to apex of vein A1+Cu2; not connected anteriorly to S-band; not connected to S-band in cell dm. V-band distal arm complete. S-band distal section width ratio (width of S-band/width of cell r2+3, both measured perpendicular to costal margin at apex of vein R2+3) 0.4–0.67 (0.48–0.60, n=10, RAZ). Area surrounding apex of lobe of cell bcu with microtrichia similar in density to area anterdistal to it along vein Cu1. Area between S-band and V-band entirely microtrichose in cells dm and cu1. Pterostigma ratio 2.86–4.0, n=10, RAZ. Ratio of costa length between apices of Sc and R1/length between apices of R1 and R2+3 0.50–0.60, RAZ. Vein R1 ratio (distance from wing base to apex of R1/wing length) 0.52–0.55 (n=10, RAZ). Vein R2+3 not sinuous; without accessory vein. Vein R4+5 distal to crossvein r-m more or less evenly curved or not strongly bowed medially. Vein M ratio (distance from bm-cu to r-m/distance from bm-cu to dm-cu) 0.64–0.69, n=10, RAZ. Vein M curvature ratio (width of cell r4+5 at apex/width at level of dm-cu) 0.7–1 (0.75–0.93, n=10, RAZ). Cell bcu ratio (length/anterior margin length along vein Cu) 1.60–1.81, n=10, RAZ. Cell bcu posteroapical lobe shorter than vein A1+Cu2. Cell bcu posteroapical lobe length/length of vein A1+Cu2 0.65–0.9 (0.67–0.88, n=10, RAZ). Costa in male with setulae on anterior margin between crossvein h and apex of vein R1 similar to other setulae. Crossvein dm-cu orientation with anterior end more distal than posterior end.

Abdomen. Abdomen ovate or parallel-sided, syntergite 1+2 gradually broadening or parallel-sided. Abdominal tergite without brown markings. Abdominal tergites evenly microtrichose. Glans present; without spinules. Oviscape entirely yellow to orange brown; straight; length 1.67–2 mm (1.73–1.93, n=2); length ratio (oviscape length/mesonotum length) 0.55–0.75 (0.60–0.71, n=2); spiracle ratio (distance from base to spiracle/oviscape length) 0.31–0.35, n=2; spiracle ratio to mesonotum length (distance from base to spiracle/mesonotum length) 0.23–0.29, RAZ. Eversible membrane with dorsobasal denticles all sclerotized, in continuous triangular to semicircular or suboval pattern. Eversible membrane with 20–25 denticles (n=10, RAZ). Aculeus length 1.7–2.1 mm (1.79–1.85, n=3; 1.8–1.9, Zucchi 1979; 1.7–2.1, Araujo & Zucchi 2006). Aculeus length/oviscape length 0.87–0.93, n=10, RAZ. Aculeus in ventral view more or less parallel-sided except extreme base. Aculeus in lateral view straight or ventrally curved. Aculeus tip length/aculeus length 0.14–0.18 (0.15–0.17, n=10, RAZ). Aculeus tip length 0.27–0.36 mm (0.27–0.30, n=2; 0.28–0.36, Araujo & Zucchi 2006); width 0.09–0.11 mm (n=10, RAZ); length/width in ventral view 2.05–2.54, n=10, RAZ; lateral margins not curved dorsally; not flared outward at or proximal to base; without ridges or lobes; without elongate dorsolateral depressions apically; with medium sized serrations; serrated part 0.5–0.75 times length of tip (0.67, Zucchi 1979). Aculeus tip serrations not extending onto dorsal side basally. Aculeus tip with serrations separated by less than width of serration. Spermathecae sclerotized. Egg without lobe (Dutra et al. 2011a, Figueiredo et al. 2011).

Miscellaneous

Data source: Zucchi 1979 & R. A. Zucchi pers. obs. Data recording inadequate. Sex of recorded specimens: male and female. Species group: fraterculus group.

Biology and economic significance

This species has been reported to attack a variety of cultivated fruits, mainly guavas and other Myrtaceae and species of Ziziphus (Rhamnaceae). Its pest status is not fully understood as it is difficult to distinguish from the A. fraterculus complex. The main damage is caused by the larvae, which feed inside the fruit. Refer to the Fruit Fly Databases for host plant information.

Illustrations

• Wing. • Terminalia, female.

Links

Fruit Fly Databases for host plant, distribution, and nomenclatural information. Google search.