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Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys

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Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz

Anastrepha striata Schiner

Morphology

Body. Setae dark red brown, or dark brown to black.

Head. Frons without brown markings except ocellar tubercle. Occiput without brown marks. Frontal setae 3–6 (usually 4–5). Orbital setae 1 (rarely), or 2. Ocellar seta weak, small or absent. Gena without brown spot. Facial carina in profile concave or flat on dorsal 2/3. Face with ventral part gradually tapered laterally; without brown markings. Antenna not extended to ventral margin of face.

Thorax. Mesonotum length 2.9–3.5 mm (2.91–3.41). Scutum microtrichose except paired elongate bare areas (with broad paired nonmicrotrichose vitta on dorsocentral line, usually interrupted at transverse suture, also with presutural medial bare area, microtrichia relatively dense producing whitish appearance when viewed at oblique anterior angle). Postpronotal, presutural supra-alar, dorsocentral, intra-alar and scutellar setae well developed, subequal to or longer than scutellum length. Acrostichal seta well developed. Basal scutellar seta strong, longer than scutellum. Katepisternal seta moderately developed, larger than postocellar seta, but much smaller and weaker than anepimeral seta. Mesonotum orange, or dark orange. Scutum presutural dorsocentral pale vitta absent; with 3 (both medial and sublateral) pale postsutural vittae; pale medial vitta with posterior end ovoid; pale sublateral postsutural vitta extended posteriorly to intra-alar seta. Scutum posteriorly with brown or orange brown band or other transverse marking or larger posteromedial mark. Scutum posteriorly with large U-shaped mark including posterior band and vittae; scutal posterior brown band not extended laterally to include intra-alar seta; with dark brown dorsocentral vitta (interrupted or constricted at transverse suture, postsutural part connected to posterior brown band to form U-shaped mark); dark brown scutal setulae between brown dorsocentral vitta and yellow sublateral vitta discontinuous, with large non-setulose area. Scutellum entirely yellow or with dark markings only on extreme base of disk (disc with narrow brown basal area), or with base of disk brown, extending to or beyond level of basal seta (brown basal area sometimes extended almost to level of basal seta). Mesopleuron mostly yellow to orange, without brown markings. Subscutellum yellow to red brown medially, dark brown laterally. Mediotergite entirely brown to dark brown, or yellow to red brown medially, dark brown laterally. Femora entirely yellow to orange. Fore femur with posterodorsal and ventral rows of well developed setae.

Wings. Wing pattern typical Anastrepha pattern (S-band complete or at most interrupted at crossvein r-m, C-band and at least proximal arm of V-band present). Cell c mostly or entirely infuscated to subhyaline, or paler posteriorly, without distinct subapical hyaline area. C-band broadly extending to vein M in cell br along cell bm; covering base of cell r2+3; yellow or orange area posterior to pterostigma broad, extending distally into cells r1 and r2+3 at least to level of midlength of pterostigma. C-band and S-band connected (along veins R4+5 and/or R2+3 or between them or posteriorly in cell r1), or separated (by hyaline band from cell bm to costal margin, distinctly narrowed along R4+5 and usually R2+3). Basal hyaline area between C-band and S-band extended to vein R4+5. Cell r1 basomarginal hyaline spot triangular to quadrate. Cell r1 basomarginal hyaline spot apex aligned proximal to crossvein r-m. S-band extended anteriorly to vein R4+5 and covering all of crossvein r-m. Cell bm entirely hyaline or infuscated only along subapical fold. S-band base without extension in middle of cell cu1 to posterior wing margin; without extension in cell a1 to or almost to posterior margin. S-band middle section predominantly or entirely orange, often with brown margins. Subapical hyaline area in radial cells distal to r-m extending anteriorly to vein R2+3. S-band distal section without marginal hyaline band or spots in cell r2+3 or near apices of R2+3 or R4+5. S-band distally not extended to apex of vein M. V-band proximal arm as dark as apical half of S-band; extending more than 1/3 distance from apex of vein Cu1 to apex of vein A1+Cu2; not connected anteriorly to S-band. V-band distal arm usually complete (often fainter anteriorly), or incomplete, not reaching vein R4+5, but extended from vein M to wing margin, or absent (especially in Guianas and northern Brazil); isolated, not connected to proximal arm of V-band or to S-band, or connected to proximal arm of V band. S-band distal section width ratio (width of S-band/width of cell r2+3, both measured perpendicular to costal margin at apex of vein R2+3) 0.4–0.67 (0.44–0.63). Pterostigma ratio 3–4. Ratio of costa length between apices of Sc and R1/length between apices of R1 and R2+3 0.45–0.55 (0.5). Vein R2+3 not sinuous; without accessory vein. Vein R4+5 distal to crossvein r-m more or less evenly curved or not strongly bowed medially. Vein M ratio (distance from bm-cu to r-m/distance from bm-cu to dm-cu) 0.64–0.71 (0.65–0.70). Cell bcu posteroapical lobe shorter than vein A1+Cu2. Costa in male with setulae on anterior margin between crossvein h and apex of vein R1 similar to other setulae. Crossvein dm-cu orientation with anterior end more distal than posterior end.

Abdomen. Abdomen ovate or parallel-sided, syntergite 1+2 gradually broadening or parallel-sided. Abdominal tergite without brown markings. Epandrium posterodorsal margin with narrow, V-shaped, medial indentation. Lateral surstylus in posterior view without basolateral lobe. Lateral surstylus in posterior view long, inner side convex, outer side projected medially, extreme apex sharply curved posteriorly. Lateral surstylus in posterior view not boot-shaped. Phallus length 3.8–4.4 mm (3.95–4.2); ratio (phallus length/mesonotum length) 1.2–1.4 (1.27–1.37). Glans present; without spinules. Proctiger lateral and ventral sclerotized areas separate, lateral areas separate dorsally. Oviscape straight; length 2.3–2.7 mm (2.32–2.66); length ratio (oviscape length/mesonotum length) 0.7–0.9 (0.74–0.86). Eversible membrane with dorsobasal denticles all sclerotized, in continuous triangular to semicircular or suboval pattern. Eversible membrane with 50–60 denticles (large hooklike dorsobasal denticles in triangular pattern). Aculeus length 1.95–2.3 mm (1.97–2.25). Aculeus in ventral view more or less parallel-sided except extreme base. Aculeus tip length 0.22–0.33 mm (0.24–0.31); width 0.17–0.2 mm; lateral margins not curved dorsally; blunt, or gradually tapering, blade-like, with flattened cross-section; not flared outward at or proximal to base; without ridges or lobes; not serrate, or with minute serration, visible only with compound microscope; serrated part 0–0.2 times length of tip. Aculeus tip serrations not extending onto dorsal side basally. Aculeus tip with serrations separated by less than width of serration. Spermathecae sclerotized; ovoid. Egg without lobe (Figueiredo et al. 2011).

Miscellaneous

Other names for this species: Dictya cancellaria Fabricius. Sex of recorded specimens: male and female. Species group: striata group.

Biology and economic significance

This species is an important pest in the American tropics and subtropics, especially of guavas and other myrtaceous fruits, although it has also been reported to attack mango, mombins, orange, and peach. It is considered a pest of quarantine significance by USDA-APHIS-PPQ and many other regulatory agencies. The main damage is caused by the larvae, which feed inside the fruit. The reported field hosts include 37 species belonging to 23 genera and 17 families. Of the 16 genera and 26 species that are native hosts, four genera (including Campomanesia, Eugenia, Myrcia, and Psidium) and 12 species belong to the Myrtaceae. See Aluja et al. (1993, 1999) and included references for information about the behavior of this species. Anastrepha striata is the only species of Anastrepha in which the mating behavior is known to include trophallaxis (passing of a substance from the male to the female via the mouthparts). Refer to the Fruit Fly Databases for host plant information.

Illustrations

• Habitus, female (dorsal, painting). • Habitus, female (dorsal, photo). • Habitus, female (lateral). • Habitus, female (live). • Wings. • Terminalia, female. • Terminalia, female (aculeus, line). • Terminalia, male.

Links

Fruit Fly Databases for host plant, distribution, and nomenclatural information. Google search.