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Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys

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Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz

Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann)

Morphology

Body. Setae dark brown to black.

Head. Frons without brown markings except ocellar tubercle, or with paired brown mark on orbital plate, separate from mark on ocellar tubercle. Occiput without brown marks, or with brown marks only on lateral sclerite, or with pair of brown marks on medial and lateral sclerites (entirely yellow, with brown spot ventral to lateral vertical seta, or usually with curved vitta extending onto margin of medial sclerite). Frontal setae 3–6. Orbital setae 2 (usually), or 1. Ocellar seta weak, small or absent. Gena without brown spot. Facial carina in profile concave or flat on dorsal 2/3. Face with ventral part gradually tapered laterally; without brown markings. Antenna not extended to ventral margin of face.

Thorax. Mesonotum length 2.7–4 mm (2.76–3.91). Scutum mostly or entirely microtrichose (except presutural medial bare area). Postpronotal, presutural supra-alar, dorsocentral, intra-alar and scutellar setae well developed, subequal to or longer than scutellum length. Acrostichal seta well developed. Basal scutellar seta strong, longer than scutellum. Katepisternal seta weak, no larger than postocellar seta. Mesonotum dark orange, or orange brown, or dark brown. Scutum presutural dorsocentral pale vitta absent; with 3 (both medial and sublateral) pale postsutural vittae; pale medial vitta narrow posteriorly, not expanded, or with posterior end ovoid; pale sublateral postsutural vitta extended posteriorly to intra-alar seta. Scutum posteriorly without brown or orange brown markings (scutum predominantly brown). Scutum without brown vittae. Scutellum entirely yellow or with dark markings only on extreme base of disk, or with base of disk brown, extending to or beyond level of basal seta. Propleuron yellow to orange, much paler than darker area on anepisternum. Mesopleuron mostly dark orange to brown. Subscutellum entirely brown to dark brown, or yellow to red brown medially, dark brown laterally. Mediotergite entirely brown to dark brown, or yellow to red brown medially, dark brown laterally. Femora entirely yellow to orange. Fore femur with posterodorsal and ventral rows of well developed setae.

Wings. Wing pattern typical Anastrepha pattern (S-band complete or at most interrupted at crossvein r-m, C-band and at least proximal arm of V-band present). Cell c mostly or entirely infuscated to subhyaline, or paler posteriorly, without distinct subapical hyaline area. C-band broadly extending to vein M in cell br along cell bm; covering base of cell r2+3; yellow or orange area posterior to pterostigma broad, extending distally into cells r1 and r2+3 at least to level of midlength of pterostigma. C-band and S-band connected (broadly along vein R4+5, cell r1 with basomarginal hyaline spot). Basal hyaline area between C-band and S-band extended into cell br but not reaching vein R4+5. Cell r1 basomarginal hyaline spot triangular to quadrate, or distal side narrowly elongated along costa. Cell r1 basomarginal hyaline spot apex aligned proximal to crossvein r-m, or apex aligned with crossvein r-m. S-band extended anteriorly to vein R4+5 and covering all of crossvein r-m. Cell bm entirely hyaline or infuscated only along subapical fold. S-band base without extension in middle of cell cu1 to posterior wing margin; without extension in cell a1 to or almost to posterior margin. S-band middle section entirely brown. Subapical hyaline area in radial cells distal to r-m extending anteriorly to vein R2+3. S-band distal section without marginal hyaline band or spots in cell r2+3 or near apices of R2+3 or R4+5. S-band distally not extended to apex of vein M, or extended to apex of vein M (rarely). V-band proximal arm as dark as apical half of S-band; extending more than 1/3 distance from apex of vein Cu1 to apex of vein A1+Cu2; not connected anteriorly to S-band. V-band distal arm absent (very rarely with 1–2 faint spots in cells r4+5 or m). S-band distal section width ratio (width of S-band/width of cell r2+3, both measured perpendicular to costal margin at apex of vein R2+3) 0.3–0.45 (0.32–0.43). Pterostigma ratio 3–3.5. Ratio of costa length between apices of Sc and R1/length between apices of R1 and R2+3 0.49–0.52. Vein R2+3 not sinuous; without accessory vein. Vein R4+5 distal to crossvein r-m more or less evenly curved or not strongly bowed medially. Vein M ratio (distance from bm-cu to r-m/distance from bm-cu to dm-cu) 0.65–0.73 (0.66–0.72). Cell bcu posteroapical lobe shorter than vein A1+Cu2. Costa in male with setulae on anterior margin between crossvein h and apex of vein R1 similar to other setulae. Crossvein dm-cu orientation with anterior end more distal than posterior end.

Abdomen. Abdomen ovate or parallel-sided, syntergite 1+2 gradually broadening or parallel-sided. Abdominal tergite with brown markings. Abdominal tergites mostly brown with somewhat T-shaped medial yellow or white area. Epandrium posterodorsal margin evenly rounded. Lateral surstylus in posterior view with small to moderate basolateral lobe. Lateral surstylus in posterior view long, more or less acute apically. Lateral surstylus in posterior view not boot-shaped. Phallus length 3.65–4.9 mm (3.71–4.84); ratio (phallus length/mesonotum length) 1.15–1.4 (1.15–1.40). Glans present; without spinules. Proctiger lateral and ventral sclerotized areas separate, lateral areas separate dorsally. Oviscape straight; length 2.55–3.95 mm (2.58–3.91); length ratio (oviscape length/mesonotum length) 0.75–1.05 (0.79–1.02). Eversible membrane with dorsobasal denticles all sclerotized, in continuous triangular to semicircular or suboval pattern. Eversible membrane with 55–65 denticles (large hooklike dorsobasal denticles in triangular pattern). Aculeus length 2.55–3.85 mm (2.58–3.83). Aculeus in ventral view more or less parallel-sided except extreme base. Aculeus tip length 0.35–0.5 mm (0.37–0.46); width 0.14–0.17 mm; lateral margins not curved dorsally; gradually tapering, blade-like, with flattened cross-section; not flared outward at or proximal to base; without ridges or lobes; with fine serrations, or with medium sized serrations; serrated part 0.5–0.7 times length of tip (0.55–0.65). Aculeus tip serrations not extending onto dorsal side basally. Aculeus tip with serrations separated by less than width of serration. Spermathecae sclerotized; ovoid. Egg without lobe.

Miscellaneous

Other names for this species: Urophora vittithorax Macquart. Sex of recorded specimens: male and female. Species group: serpentina group.

Biology and economic significance

This species is an important pest in the American tropics and subtropics, especially of sapotaceous fruits, although it has also been reported to attack mango, several species of Citrus, apple, peach and quince. It is considered a pest of quarantine significance by USDA-APHIS-PPQ and many other regulatory agencies. The main damage is caused by the larvae, which feed inside the fruit. The reported field hosts include at least 45 species belonging to 28 genera and 17 families. Of the 18 genera and 29 species that are native hosts, five genera (including Chrysophyllum, Manilkara, Micropholis, Pouteria, and Sideroxylon) and 15 species belong to the Sapotaceae. See Aluja et al. (1999) and included references for information about the behavior of this species. Refer to the Fruit Fly Databases for host plant information.

Illustrations

• Habitus, female (dorsal, painting). • Habitus, female (dorsal, photo). • Wings. • Terminalia, female. • Terminalia, male. • Egg (SEM).

Links

Fruit Fly Databases for host plant, distribution, and nomenclatural information. Google search.