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Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys


Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz

Anastrepha protuberans Norrbom & Korytkowski


Body. Setae orange brown, or red brown (red brown in type specimens, occasionally dark red brown on head), or dark red brown.

Head. Frons without brown markings except ocellar tubercle. Occiput without brown marks. Frontal setae 2–4 (3 in type series (n=6)). Orbital setae 2. Ocellar seta weak, small or absent. Gena without brown spot. Facial carina in profile produced between or just below antennae. Face with ventral part gradually tapered laterally; without brown markings. Antenna not extended to ventral margin of face. Arista of male without preapical expansion. Palpus in lateral view evenly setulose.

Thorax. Mesonotum length 3.9–4.9 mm (4.09–4.74, n=6). Postpronotal lobe and notopleuron mostly or entirely nonmicrotrichose (except medial margin of postpronotal lobe). Scutum nonmicrotrichose (except postsutural lateral margin, lateral to supra-alar seta). Scutellum disc entirely microtrichose (sides of scutellum nonmicrotrichose). Postpronotal, presutural supra-alar, dorsocentral, intra-alar and scutellar setae well developed, subequal to or longer than scutellum length; postpronotal seta on posterior half of postpronotal lobe. Acrostichal seta well developed. Basal scutellar seta strong, longer than scutellum. Mesonotum yellow, or orange. Scutum white markings poorly differentiated in type series; sublateral vittae visible in Ecuador paratype; pale sublateral postsutural vitta extended posteriorly to intra-alar seta. Scutum posteriorly without brown or orange brown markings. Scutum without brown vittae. Scutellum entirely yellow or with dark markings only on extreme base of disk. Mesopleuron mostly yellow to orange, without brown markings. Subscutellum entirely yellow to orange. Mediotergite entirely yellow to orange. Femora entirely yellow to orange. Fore femur with posterodorsal and ventral rows of well developed setae.

Wings. Wing length 9.97–11.87, n=6. Wing pattern typical Anastrepha pattern (S-band complete or at most interrupted at crossvein r-m, C-band and at least proximal arm of V-band present). Cell c mostly or entirely infuscated to subhyaline, or paler posteriorly, without distinct subapical hyaline area. C-band broadly extending to vein M in cell br along cell bm; covering base of cell r2+3; yellow or orange area posterior to pterostigma filling all of band in cells r1 and r2+3, or broad, extending distally into cells r1 and r2+3 at least to level of midlength of pterostigma. C-band and S-band separated (by hyaline band from cell bm to vein R1 and by diffuse yellowish area in cell r1), or connected along costal margin (by yellowish area, not extending beyond vein R1). Basal hyaline area between C-band and S-band extended anteriorly beyond vein R4+5. S-band extended anteriorly to vein R4+5 and covering all of crossvein r-m. Cell bm entirely hyaline or infuscated only along subapical fold. S-band posterior margin without incision in cell cu1, or with weak incision in cell cu1. S-band base without extension in middle of cell cu1 to posterior wing margin; without extension in cell a1 to or almost to posterior margin. S-band middle section predominantly or entirely orange, often with brown margins. Subapical hyaline area in radial cells distal to r-m extending anteriorly to vein R2+3 (usually), or extending into cell r2+3 but not reaching vein R2+3. S-band distal section without marginal hyaline band or spots in cell r2+3 or near apices of R2+3 or R4+5. S-band distally extended to apex of vein M, or not extended to apex of vein M. V-band proximal arm as dark as apical half of S-band; extending more than 1/3 distance from apex of vein Cu1 to apex of vein A1+Cu2; not connected anteriorly to S-band; not connected to S-band in cell dm. V-band distal arm complete; connected to proximal arm of V band. Apex of V-band not extended from vein R4+5 to vein M, hyaline area present between band and vein M, or extended from vein R4+5 to vein M, no hyaline area present between band and vein M. Area surrounding apex of lobe of cell bcu with microtrichia similar in density to area anterdistal to it along vein Cu1. Area between S-band and V-band entirely microtrichose in cells dm and cu1, or with small nonmicrotrichose area in cell dm posteriorly (usually). Cell c: pterostigma ratio (cell c length/pterostigma length) 1.05–1.3 (1.13–1.21, n=3). Pterostigma ratio 5.41–6.06, n=3. Vein R1 ratio (distance from wing base to apex of R1/wing length) 0.57–0.62 (0.59–0.60, n=3). Vein R2+3 strongly sinuous (especially in male); without accessory vein. Vein R4+5 distal to crossvein r-m more or less evenly curved or not strongly bowed medially (more strongly curved basally in male than in female). Vein M ratio (distance from bm-cu to r-m/distance from bm-cu to dm-cu) 0.67–0.72 (0.68–0.71, n=6). Vein M curvature ratio (width of cell r4+5 at apex/width at level of dm-cu) 0.55–0.85 (0.63–0.75, n=3). Cell bcu ratio (length/anterior margin length along vein Cu) 1.61–1.70, n=3. Cell bcu posteroapical lobe shorter than vein A1+Cu2. Costa in male with setulae on anterior margin between crossvein h and apex of vein R1 similar to other setulae. Crossvein dm-cu orientation with anterior end more distal than posterior end.

Abdomen. Abdomen ovate or parallel-sided, syntergite 1+2 gradually broadening or parallel-sided. Abdominal tergite without brown markings. Epandrium posterodorsal margin evenly rounded. Lateral surstylus in posterior view without basolateral lobe. Lateral surstylus in posterior view not boot-shaped. Surstylus in posterior view with lateral margin convex. Surstylus in posterior view with mesal margin convex. Phallus length 10–14.5 mm (12.6–12.9, n=2); ratio (phallus length/mesonotum length) 2.5–3.05 (2.72–2.84, n=2). Proctiger lateral and ventral sclerotized areas connected, lateral areas separate dorsally. Oviscape entirely yellow to orange brown; slightly ventrally curved; length 7.6–9.6 mm (7.81–9.35, n=2); length ratio (oviscape length/mesonotum length) 1.8–2.2 (1.91–2.02, n=2); spiracle ratio (distance from base to spiracle/oviscape length) 0.17–0.23 (0.19–0.21, n=2). Eversible membrane with dorsobasal denticles all sclerotized, in continuous triangular to semicircular or suboval pattern. Eversible membrane with 15–25 denticles (hooklike denticles in suboval pattern, 1 row of 11–13 denticles very large and stout, distinctly larger than distal row of 7 smaller denticles, and 1–2 rows of small proximal denticles). Eversible membrane, subbasally on ventral side without cluster of hairs. Aculeus length 7.4–9.5 mm (7.66–9.35, n=2). Aculeus length/oviscape length 0.98–1.00, n=2. Aculeus in ventral view more or less parallel-sided except extreme base. Aculeus in lateral view straight or ventrally curved. Aculeus tip length/aculeus length 0.04–0.07 (0.05–0.06, n=2). Aculeus tip length 0.42–0.52 mm (0.45–0.49, n=2); width 0.12–0.17 mm (0.13–0.16, n=2); length/width in ventral view 3.06–3.46, n=2; depth (width in lateral view)/width (in ventral view) 0.56–0.62, n=2; lateral margins not curved dorsally; not flared outward at or proximal to base; without ridges or lobes; without elongate dorsolateral depressions apically; not serrate; serrated part 0 times length of tip.


Data recording adequate. Sex of recorded specimens: male and female. Species group: mucronota group.

Biology and economic significance

This species is not considered economically important. Refer to the Fruit Fly Databases for host plant information.


• Wings. • Terminalia, male & female.


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