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Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys


Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz

Anastrepha pallens Coquillett


Body. Setae orange, or orange brown.

Head. Frons with brown band or mark including ocellar tubercle and extending to eye margin (rectangular or narrowed between ocellar tubercle and orbital plate, at most moderately broad, not extended anteriorly beyond orbital seta). Anterior or single orbital seta anterior or mesal to brown band, or at margin of brown band. Occiput without brown marks. Frontal setae 2–5 (usually 3–4). Orbital setae 1, or 2 (rarely). Ocellar seta weak, small or absent. Gena with brown spot below eye (sometimes faint). Facial carina in profile concave or flat on dorsal 2/3. Face with ventral part gradually tapered laterally; without brown markings. Antenna not extended to ventral margin of face.

Thorax. Mesonotum length 2.65–3.5 mm (2.70–3.45, n=22). Scutum nonmicrotrichose (except postsutural lateral margin, lateral to supra-alar seta). Scutellum disc entirely microtrichose. Postpronotal, presutural supra-alar, dorsocentral, intra-alar and scutellar setae well developed, subequal to or longer than scutellum length; postpronotal seta on posterior half of postpronotal lobe. Acrostichal seta well developed. Basal scutellar seta strong, longer than scutellum. Katepisternal seta absent. Mesonotum orange, or dark orange; with presutural lateral pale vitta on lateral margin of scutum and posterior part of notopleuron (including posterior corner). Scutum presutural dorsocentral pale vitta present and connected anteriorly with pale area of postpronotal lobe; with 3 (both medial and sublateral) pale postsutural vittae; pale medial vitta with posterior end bilobed (Y-shaped, lobes broad); pale sublateral postsutural vitta extended posteriorly to intra-alar seta. Scutum posteriorly with pair of brown spots or markings, or with brown or orange brown band or other transverse marking or larger posteromedial mark. Scutum posteriorly with pair of triangular brown marks on or near dorsocentral line; with dark band or broad marking on posterior margin, or with large U-shaped mark including posterior band and vittae (rarely, and very short if U-shaped), or with irregular brown markings; scutal posterior brown band not extended laterally to include intra-alar seta; without brown vittae, or with dark brown dorsocentral vitta (on posterior half or less of scutum). Scutellum with at least basal third of sides and disk brown or orange, distinctly darker than apex. Mesopleuron mostly yellow to orange, without brown markings. Subscutellum entirely yellow to orange. Mediotergite entirely yellow to orange. Femora entirely yellow to orange. Fore femur with posterodorsal and ventral rows of well developed setae.

Wings. Wing pattern with basal half of S-band divided into 3 parts by interruptions along veins R4+5 and Cu1 (i.e., a spot or partial band present in basal half of cell dm), C-band and at least proximal arm of V-band present. Cell c mostly or entirely infuscated to subhyaline, or paler posteriorly, without distinct subapical hyaline area. C-band broadly extending to vein M in cell br along cell bm; not covering base of cell r2+3. C-band and S-band separated (by hyaline band from cell bm to costal margin in cell r1), or connected (in cell r1 posteriorly or along vein R2+3 (but not along vein R4+5), cell r1 with basomarginal hyaline spot). S-band extended anteriorly to vein R4+5 and covering all of crossvein r-m. Cell bm entirely hyaline or infuscated only along subapical fold. S-band base without extension in middle of cell cu1 to posterior wing margin; without extension in cell a1 to or almost to posterior margin. Cubital streak (isolated base of S-band) entirely covering cell bcu. Cubital streak (isolated base of S-band) bordering base of vein Cu1 but not extending to dm-cu. Subapical hyaline area in radial cells distal to r-m extending anteriorly to vein R2+3. S-band distal section without marginal hyaline band or spots in cell r2+3 or near apices of R2+3 or R4+5. S-band distally extended to apex of vein M, or not extended to apex of vein M. V-band proximal arm as dark as apical half of S-band; not connected anteriorly to S-band, or connected anteriorly to S-band along vein R4+5 or in cell r2+3. V-band distal arm absent. Pterostigma ratio 3.8–4.4. Ratio of costa length between apices of Sc and R1/length between apices of R1 and R2+3 0.45–0.67. Vein R2+3 not sinuous; without accessory vein. Vein M ratio (distance from bm-cu to r-m/distance from bm-cu to dm-cu) 0.55–0.67 (0.56–0.66). Cell bcu posteroapical lobe shorter than vein A1+Cu2. Costa in male with setulae on anterior margin between crossvein h and apex of vein R1 similar to other setulae. Crossvein dm-cu orientation with anterior end more distal than posterior end.

Abdomen. Abdomen ovate or parallel-sided, syntergite 1+2 gradually broadening or parallel-sided. Abdominal tergite without brown markings, or with brown markings. Abdominal tergites at least with syntergite 1+2 with dark brown band. Epandrium posterodorsal margin evenly rounded. Lateral surstylus in posterior view very short, barely extended beyond prensisetae, rounded apically. Lateral surstylus in posterior view not boot-shaped. Lateral surstylus in lateral view short, apex blunt. Phallus length 0.1–0.3 mm; ratio (phallus length/mesonotum length) 0.02–0.15. Glans absent. Proctiger lateral and ventral sclerotized areas connected, lateral areas separate dorsally. Oviscape straight; length 2.9–3.7 mm (2.91–3.7, n=22); length ratio (oviscape length/mesonotum length) 0.95–1.2 (0.95–1.17, n=22). Eversible membrane with dorsobasal denticles mostly small and weak, apical row very large, stout, strongly sclerotized, and divided medially. Aculeus length 2.6–3.1 mm. Aculeus in ventral view more or less parallel-sided except extreme base. Aculeus tip length 0.1–0.15 mm; width 0.02–0.04 mm; lateral margins not curved dorsally; slender, needle-like, with circular cross-section; not flared outward at or proximal to base; without ridges or lobes; with minute serration, visible only with compound microscope, or with fine serrations; serrated part 0.15–0.25 times length of tip. Aculeus tip with serrations separated by less than width of serration. Spermathecae membranous; ovoid. Egg without lobe.


Sex of recorded specimens: male and female. Species group: daciformis group.

Biology and economic significance

This species is not considered economically important. Both of the known host plants belong to the genus Sideroxylon (Sapotaceae). The larva feeds inside the single large seed within the fruit. Refer to the Fruit Fly Databases for host plant information.


• Habitus, female (dorsal, painting). • Habitus, female (dorsal, photo). • Wing. • Terminalia, female.


Fruit Fly Databases for host plant, distribution, and nomenclatural information. Google search.