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Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys

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Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz

Anastrepha normalis Norrbom

Morphology

Body. Setae dark brown to black.

Head. Frons without brown markings except ocellar tubercle. Occiput without brown marks. Frontal setae 3–5 (usually 4). Orbital setae 2 (usually), or 1. Ocellar seta weak, small or absent. Gena without brown spot. Facial carina in profile concave or flat on dorsal 2/3. Face with ventral part gradually tapered laterally; without brown markings. Antenna not extended to ventral margin of face.

Thorax. Mesonotum length 3.1–4 mm (3.41–3.74). Scutum mostly or entirely microtrichose (except presutural medial bare area). Postpronotal, presutural supra-alar, dorsocentral, intra-alar and scutellar setae well developed, subequal to or longer than scutellum length. Acrostichal seta well developed. Basal scutellar seta strong, longer than scutellum. Katepisternal seta weak, no larger than postocellar seta. Mesonotum dark orange, or orange brown, or dark brown. Scutum presutural dorsocentral pale vitta absent; with 3 (both medial and sublateral) pale postsutural vittae; pale sublateral postsutural vitta extended posteriorly to intra-alar seta. Scutum posteriorly without brown or orange brown markings (scutum predominantly brown), or with brown or orange brown band or other transverse marking or larger posteromedial mark. Scutum posteriorly with large U-shaped mark including posterior band and vittae; scutal posterior brown band not extended laterally to include intra-alar seta; without brown vittae, or with dark brown dorsocentral vitta. Scutellum entirely yellow or with dark markings only on extreme base of disk (disc usually with narrow orange or brown basal area), or with base of disk brown, extending to or beyond level of basal seta (brown basal area sometimes extended almost to level of basal seta). Propleuron yellow to orange, much paler than darker area on anepisternum. Mesopleuron mostly dark orange to brown. Subscutellum entirely brown to dark brown, or yellow to red brown medially, dark brown laterally. Mediotergite entirely brown to dark brown, or yellow to red brown medially, dark brown laterally.

Wings. Wing pattern typical Anastrepha pattern (S-band complete or at most interrupted at crossvein r-m, C-band and at least proximal arm of V-band present). Cell c mostly or entirely infuscated to subhyaline, or paler posteriorly, without distinct subapical hyaline area. C-band broadly extending to vein M in cell br along cell bm; covering base of cell r2+3; yellow or orange area posterior to pterostigma broad, extending distally into cells r1 and r2+3 at least to level of midlength of pterostigma. C-band and S-band connected (broadly along vein R4+5, cell r1 with basomarginal hyaline spot). Basal hyaline area between C-band and S-band extended into cell br but not reaching vein R4+5. Cell r1 basomarginal hyaline spot triangular to quadrate. Cell r1 basomarginal hyaline spot apex aligned proximal to crossvein r-m. S-band extended anteriorly to vein R4+5 and covering all of crossvein r-m. Cell bm entirely hyaline or infuscated only along subapical fold. S-band base without extension in middle of cell cu1 to posterior wing margin; without extension in cell a1 to or almost to posterior margin. S-band middle section predominantly or entirely orange, often with brown margins. Subapical hyaline area in radial cells distal to r-m extending anteriorly to vein R2+3. S-band distal section without marginal hyaline band or spots in cell r2+3 or near apices of R2+3 or R4+5. S-band distally extended to apex of vein M, or not extended to apex of vein M. V-band proximal arm as dark as apical half of S-band; extending more than 1/3 distance from apex of vein Cu1 to apex of vein A1+Cu2; not connected anteriorly to S-band (usually), or connected anteriorly to S-band along vein R4+5 or in cell r2+3. V-band distal arm absent (usually), or present only in cell m (at most a faint spot present); isolated, not connected to proximal arm of V-band or to S-band. S-band distal section width ratio (width of S-band/width of cell r2+3, both measured perpendicular to costal margin at apex of vein R2+3) 0.5–0.65 (0.51–0.64). Vein R2+3 not sinuous; without accessory vein. Vein R4+5 distal to crossvein r-m more or less evenly curved or not strongly bowed medially. Vein M ratio (distance from bm-cu to r-m/distance from bm-cu to dm-cu) 0.7–0.74 (0.71–0.73). Cell bcu posteroapical lobe shorter than vein A1+Cu2. Crossvein dm-cu orientation with anterior end more distal than posterior end.

Abdomen. Abdomen ovate or parallel-sided, syntergite 1+2 gradually broadening or parallel-sided. Abdominal tergite with brown markings. Abdominal tergites at least with syntergite 1+2 with dark brown band. Epandrium posterodorsal margin evenly rounded. Lateral surstylus in posterior view without basolateral lobe. Lateral surstylus in posterior view not boot-shaped. Phallus length 4.8–5.7 mm (5.11–5.42); ratio (phallus length/mesonotum length) 1.4–1.65 (1.5–1.53). Glans present; without spinules. Proctiger lateral and ventral sclerotized areas separate, lateral areas separate dorsally. Oviscape straight; length 3.75–4.45 mm (3.79–4.41); length ratio (oviscape length/mesonotum length) 1.05–1.25 (1.07–1.21). Eversible membrane with dorsobasal denticles all sclerotized, in continuous triangular to semicircular or suboval pattern. Eversible membrane with 40–50 denticles (large hooklike dorsobasal denticles in triangular pattern). Aculeus length 3.55–4.2 mm (3.62–4.14). Aculeus in ventral view more or less parallel-sided except extreme base. Aculeus tip length 0.2–0.3 mm (0.23–0.28); width 0.13–0.15 mm; not flared outward at or proximal to base; without ridges or lobes; not serrate; serrated part 0 times length of tip. Spermathecae sclerotized.

Miscellaneous

Sex of recorded specimens: male and female. Species group: serpentina group.

Biology and economic significance

This species is not considered economically important. Refer to the Fruit Fly Databases for host plant information.

Illustrations

• Habitus, female (dorsal). • Wings. • Terminalia, male & female.

Links

Fruit Fly Databases for host plant, distribution, and nomenclatural information. Google search.