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Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys


Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz

Anastrepha nolazcoae Norrbom & Korytkowski


Body. Setae orange brown, or red brown, or dark red brown.

Head. Frons without brown markings except ocellar tubercle. Occiput without brown marks. Frontal setae 3–4. Orbital setae 2. Ocellar seta weak, small or absent. Gena without brown spot. Facial carina in profile concave or flat on dorsal 2/3. Face with ventral part gradually tapered laterally; without brown markings. Antenna not extended to ventral margin of face. Arista of male without preapical expansion. Palpus in lateral view evenly setulose.

Thorax. Mesonotum length 2.7–3.8 mm (2.75–3.73, n=11). Postpronotal lobe and notopleuron entirely microtrichose. Scutum nonmicrotrichose except narrowly medially and laterally (microtrichose medially between acrostichal lines, sometimes extending irregularly and/or more sparsely to dorsocentral lines, especially posteriorly). Scutellum disc entirely microtrichose. Postpronotal, presutural supra-alar, dorsocentral, intra-alar and scutellar setae well developed, subequal to or longer than scutellum length; postpronotal seta on posterior half of postpronotal lobe. Acrostichal seta well developed. Basal scutellar seta strong, longer than scutellum. Mesonotum yellow, or orange. Scutum posteriorly without brown or orange brown markings. Scutum without brown vittae. Scutellum entirely yellow or with dark markings only on extreme base of disk. Mesopleuron mostly yellow to orange, without brown markings. Subscutellum entirely yellow to orange. Mediotergite entirely yellow to orange. Femora entirely yellow to orange.

Wings. Wing length 7–8.75 mm (7.30–8.35, n=6). Wing pattern typical Anastrepha pattern (S-band complete or at most interrupted at crossvein r-m, C-band and at least proximal arm of V-band present). C-band broadly extending to vein M in cell br along cell bm; covering base of cell r2+3; yellow or orange area posterior to pterostigma broad, extending distally into cells r1 and r2+3 at least to level of midlength of pterostigma. C-band and S-band separated (broadly by hyaline band extended from cell bm to costa distal to apex of vein R1, hyaline band not narrowed along veins R2+3 and R4+5, at most slightly narrowed anteriorly in cell r1). S-band extended anteriorly to vein R4+5 and covering all of crossvein r-m. Cell bm entirely hyaline or infuscated only along subapical fold. S-band base without extension in middle of cell cu1 to posterior wing margin; without extension in cell a1 to or almost to posterior margin. S-band middle section predominantly or entirely orange, often with brown margins. Subapical hyaline area in radial cells distal to r-m extending anteriorly into cell r1, or extending anteriorly to vein R2+3, or extending into cell r2+3 but not reaching vein R2+3 (narrowly separated if not reaching R2+3). S-band distal section without marginal hyaline band or spots in cell r2+3 or near apices of R2+3 or R4+5. S-band distally not extended to apex of vein M. V-band proximal arm as dark as apical half of S-band; extending more than 1/3 distance from apex of vein Cu1 to apex of vein A1+Cu2; not connected anteriorly to S-band; not connected to S-band in cell dm. V-band distal arm complete; connected to proximal arm of V band. S-band distal section width ratio (width of S-band/width of cell r2+3, both measured perpendicular to costal margin at apex of vein R2+3) 0.5–0.75 (0.55–0.68, n=5). Area surrounding apex of lobe of cell bcu with microtrichia similar in density to area anterdistal to it along vein Cu1. Area between S-band and V-band entirely microtrichose in cells dm and cu1. Cell c: pterostigma ratio (cell c length/pterostigma length) 0.9–1.07 (0.91–1.06, n=5). Pterostigma ratio 4.40–5.03, n=4. Vein R1 ratio (distance from wing base to apex of R1/wing length) 0.54–0.62 (0.55–0.61, n=6). Vein R2+3 slightly sinuous; without accessory vein. Vein M ratio (distance from bm-cu to r-m/distance from bm-cu to dm-cu) 0.67–0.72 (n=5). Vein M curvature ratio (width of cell r4+5 at apex/width at level of dm-cu) 0.85–1 (0.87–0.97, n=6). Cell bcu ratio (length/anterior margin length along vein Cu) 1.50–1.72, n=. Costa in male with setulae on anterior margin between crossvein h and apex of vein R1 similar to other setulae. Crossvein dm-cu orientation with anterior end more distal than posterior end.

Abdomen. Abdomen ovate or parallel-sided, syntergite 1+2 gradually broadening or parallel-sided. Abdominal tergite without brown markings. Epandrium posterodorsal margin evenly rounded. Epandrium in lateral view shorter than high. Lateral surstylus in posterior view without basolateral lobe. Lateral surstylus in posterior view similar in shape to mucronota but broader, not strongly tapered to apicolateral lobe, and lateral margin nearly flat. Lateral surstylus in posterior view not boot-shaped. Surstylus in posterior view with lateral margin convex. Surstylus in posterior view with mesal margin concave. Lateral surstylus in lateral view flattened, slightly curved, apex acute. Phallus length 5.75–7.2 mm (6.30–6.60, n=2; 5.95, Korytkowski 2001); ratio (phallus length/mesonotum length) 1.75–2.35 (1.86–2.24, n=2). Glans present; without spinules. Proctiger lateral and ventral sclerotized areas connected, lateral areas separate dorsally. Oviscape entirely yellow to orange brown; straight; length 4–5.75 mm (4.12–5.60, n=10); length ratio (oviscape length/mesonotum length) 1.33–1.75 (1.40–1.70, n=9); spiracle ratio (distance from base to spiracle/oviscape length) 0.21–0.26 (0.22–0.25, n=9). Eversible membrane with dorsobasal denticles all sclerotized, in continuous triangular to semicircular or suboval pattern. Eversible membrane with 25–35 denticles (long, slender, hooklike denticles in 3–4 irregular rows in subtriangular to subovoid pattern). Aculeus length 3.9–5.7 mm (4.10–5.25, n=10). Aculeus length/oviscape length 0.88–1.05 (0.90–1.02, n=10). Aculeus in ventral view more or less parallel-sided except extreme base. Aculeus in lateral view straight or ventrally curved. Aculeus tip length/aculeus length 0.04–0.065 (0.046–0.062, n=10). Aculeus tip length 0.22–0.3 mm (0.23–0.29, n=10); width 0.09–0.12 mm (0.096–0.12, n=10); length/width in ventral view 1.8–2.85 (1.92–2.76, n=10); depth (width in lateral view)/width (in ventral view) 0.5–0.67 (0.50–0.65, n=7); lateral margins not curved dorsally; not flared outward at or proximal to base; without ridges or lobes; without elongate dorsolateral depressions apically; not serrate; serrated part 0 times length of tip.


Data source: Norrbom & Korytkowski 2010. Sex of recorded specimens: male and female. Species group: mucronota group.

Biology and economic significance

This species is a pest of zapote (Matisia cordata Bonpl.), a fruit cultivated in the Andean countries. Refer to the Fruit Fly Databases for host plant information.


• Habitus, female (dorsal) (Norrbom & Korytkowski 2011, fig. 4). • Wings (Norrbom & Korytkowski 2011, figs. 10–11). • Terminalia, male & female.


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