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Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys


Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz

Anastrepha macrura Hendel


Body. Setae orange, or orange brown, or red brown.

Head. Frons with brown band or mark including ocellar tubercle and extending to eye margin (usually semicircular or triangular and broadest along midline), or with paired brown mark on orbital plate, separate from mark on ocellar tubercle (rarely). Anterior or single orbital seta anterior or mesal to brown band, or at margin of brown band (usually), or within brown band. Occiput with pair of brown marks on medial and lateral sclerites, or with single broad brown area on medial and lateral sclerites (with curved vitta or broad triangular brown mark extending from ventral to lateral vertical seta onto medial sclerite, often connected ventromedially, sometimes with separate brown area ventrally on lateral sclerite). Frontal setae 2–5 (usually 3–4). Orbital setae 1. Ocellar seta weak, small or absent. Gena with brown spot below eye. Facial carina in profile concave or flat on dorsal 2/3. Face with ventral part gradually tapered laterally; with brown markings. Facial carina with mark or vitta extending from vental margin (on ventral 2/3–4/5). Antennal groove without brown markings. Antenna extended to or beyond ventral margin of face.

Thorax. Mesonotum length 3.35–3.85 mm (3.41–3.79, n=9). Scutum mostly or entirely microtrichose (except medial presutural bare area). Scutellum disc entirely microtrichose. Postpronotal, presutural supra-alar, dorsocentral, intra-alar and scutellar setae well developed, subequal to or longer than scutellum length; postpronotal seta on posterior half of postpronotal lobe. Acrostichal seta well developed. Basal scutellar seta strong, longer than scutellum. Katepisternal seta absent. Mesonotum medium brown, or dark brown; with isolated pale spot on posterior part of notopleuron, not extended onto presutural lateral margin of scutum. Scutum presutural dorsocentral pale vitta present but separated anteriorly from pale area of postpronotal lobe, or present and connected anteriorly with pale area of postpronotal lobe; with 3 (both medial and sublateral) pale postsutural vittae; pale medial vitta with posterior end bilobed (Y-shaped, lobes slender); pale sublateral postsutural vitta extended posteriorly to intra-alar seta. Scutum posteriorly without brown or orange brown markings (scutum predominantly brown). Scutum without brown vittae. Scutellum with at least basal third of sides and disk brown or orange, distinctly darker than apex. Propleuron at least partly dark orange or brown similar to darker area on anepisternum. Mesopleuron mostly dark orange to brown. Subscutellum entirely brown to dark brown. Mediotergite entirely brown to dark brown. Femora at least one femur partly to entirely brown (mid and hind femora yellow with apex and extreme base pale to moderate brown, fore femur similar or entirely yellow, tibiae dark orange to pale brown, tarsi yellow to orange). Fore femur with posterodorsal and ventral rows of well developed setae.

Wings. Wing pattern with basal half of S-band reduced to streak in cubital cells, costal band continuous to wing apex, proximal arm of V-band variable. Cell c mostly or entirely infuscated to subhyaline, or paler posteriorly, without distinct subapical hyaline area. C-band not extending to vein M in cell br adjacent to cell bm; covering base of cell r2+3. Cell bm entirely hyaline or infuscated only along subapical fold. S-band base without extension in cell a1 to or almost to posterior margin. Cubital streak (isolated base of S-band) entirely covering cell bcu. Cubital streak (isolated base of S-band) bordering base of vein Cu1 but not extending to dm-cu. Subapical hyaline area in radial cells distal to r-m S-band entirely covering cell r2+3 distal to r-m. S-band distal section without marginal hyaline band or spots in cell r2+3 or near apices of R2+3 or R4+5. S-band distally not extended to apex of vein M. V-band proximal arm absent or diffuse and much paler than apical half of S-band (faint and extended only to or slightly anterior to vein M). V-band distal arm absent. S-band distal section width ratio (width of S-band/width of cell r2+3, both measured perpendicular to costal margin at apex of vein R2+3) 1. Pterostigma ratio 4.3–5. Ratio of costa length between apices of Sc and R1/length between apices of R1 and R2+3 0.47–0.56. Vein R2+3 not sinuous; without accessory vein. Vein R4+5 distal to crossvein r-m more or less evenly curved or not strongly bowed medially. Vein M ratio (distance from bm-cu to r-m/distance from bm-cu to dm-cu) 0.57–0.68 (0.58–0.67). Cell bcu posteroapical lobe shorter than vein A1+Cu2. Costa in male with setulae on anterior margin between crossvein h and apex of vein R1 similar to other setulae. Crossvein dm-cu orientation with anterior end more distal than posterior end.

Abdomen. Abdomen ovate or parallel-sided, syntergite 1+2 gradually broadening or parallel-sided. Abdominal tergite with brown markings. Abdominal tergites mostly brown with somewhat T-shaped medial yellow or white area. Epandrium posterodorsal margin evenly rounded. Lateral surstylus in posterior view very short, barely extended beyond prensisetae, rounded apically. Lateral surstylus in posterior view not boot-shaped. Lateral surstylus in lateral view short, apex blunt. Phallus length 0.1–0.3 mm; ratio (phallus length/mesonotum length) 0.02–0.15. Glans absent. Proctiger lateral and ventral sclerotized areas connected, lateral areas separate dorsally. Oviscape straight; length 4.95–6.7 mm (4.99–6.66, n=9); length ratio (oviscape length/mesonotum length) 1.4–1.9 (1.43–1.89, n=9). Eversible membrane with dorsobasal denticles mostly small and weak, apical row very large, stout, strongly sclerotized, and divided medially. Aculeus length 4.45–5.75 mm (4.49–5.72). Aculeus in ventral view more or less parallel-sided except extreme base. Aculeus tip length 0.15–0.25 mm; width 0.03–0.045 mm; slender, needle-like, with circular cross-section; not flared outward at or proximal to base; without ridges or lobes; without elongate dorsolateral depressions apically; not serrate, or with minute serration, visible only with compound microscope; serrated part 0–0.25 times length of tip. Aculeus tip with serrations separated by less than width of serration. Spermathecae membranous; ovoid.


Other names for this species: Anastrepha nambacoli Tigrero. Sex of recorded specimens: male and female. Species group: daciformis group.

Biology and economic significance

This species is not considered a significant pest, although it has been reared from fruit of one economically important plant, Chrysophyllum cainito L., as well as a wild species of Sapotaceae. Refer to the Fruit Fly Databases for host plant information.


• Habitus, female (dorsal). • Habitus, female (lateral). • Head (anterior). • Abdomen, female (Lima 1938a, est. 6, fig. 3). • Wings. • Terminalia, female. • Terminalia, male (Lima 1937, est. 7, fig. 4).


Fruit Fly Databases for host plant, distribution, and nomenclatural information. Google search.