USDA logo

Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys


Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz

Anastrepha grandis (Macquart)


Body. Setae orange, or dark red brown.

Head. Frons without brown markings except ocellar tubercle. Occiput without brown marks. Frontal setae 3–5. Orbital setae 1, or 2 (posterior seta often weak). Ocellar seta weak, small or absent. Gena without brown spot. Facial carina in profile concave or flat on dorsal 2/3. Face with ventral part gradually tapered laterally; without brown markings. Antenna not extended to ventral margin of face.

Thorax. Mesonotum length 2.88–4.22 mm. Postpronotal lobe and notopleuron entirely microtrichose. Scutum mostly or entirely microtrichose. Scutellum disc entirely microtrichose. Postpronotal, presutural supra-alar, dorsocentral, intra-alar and scutellar setae well developed, subequal to or longer than scutellum length; postpronotal seta on posterior half of postpronotal lobe. Acrostichal seta well developed. Basal scutellar seta strong, longer than scutellum. Katepisternal seta absent. Mesonotum orange, or dark orange; without pale spot or vitta on presutural lateral margin of scutum or posterior part of notopleuron, or with short presutural lateral pale vitta on lateral margin of scutum, not extended onto notopleuron. Scutum presutural dorsocentral pale vitta absent; with 3 (both medial and sublateral) pale postsutural vittae; pale medial vitta with posterior end ovoid (extended laterally beyond acrostichal seta but not reaching dorsocentral seta); pale sublateral postsutural vitta extended posteriorly to intra-alar seta. Scutum posteriorly without brown or orange brown markings, or with only single medial brown spot on scuto-scutellar suture (usually). Scutum with dark brown dorsocentral vitta (slender); dark brown scutal setulae between brown dorsocentral vitta and yellow sublateral vitta continuous, evenly distributed, without large non-setulose areas. Scutellum entirely yellow or with dark markings only on extreme base of disk (base often narrowly orange to brown). Subscutellum entirely yellow to orange (*recheck). Mediotergite yellow to red brown medially, dark brown laterally. Femora entirely yellow to orange. Fore femur with posterodorsal and ventral rows of well developed setae.

Wings. Wing length 7.95–10.3 mm. Wing pattern typical Anastrepha pattern (S-band complete or at most interrupted at crossvein r-m, C-band and at least proximal arm of V-band present). C-band broadly extending to vein M in cell br along cell bm; covering base of cell r2+3. C-band and S-band broadly connected along costal margin (connection extending to vein R4+5). Basal hyaline area between C-band and S-band extended to vein R4+5. S-band extended anteriorly to vein R4+5 and covering all of crossvein r-m. Cell bm entirely hyaline or infuscated only along subapical fold. S-band base without extension in middle of cell cu1 to posterior wing margin; without extension in cell a1 to or almost to posterior margin. Subapical hyaline area in radial cells distal to r-m S-band entirely covering cell r2+3 distal to r-m. S-band distal section without marginal hyaline band or spots in cell r2+3 or near apices of R2+3 or R4+5. S-band distally not extended to apex of vein M. V-band proximal arm as dark as apical half of S-band; not connected anteriorly to S-band (often faint or absent anterior to vein M), or connected anteriorly to S-band along vein R4+5 or in cell r2+3; not connected to S-band in cell dm. V-band distal arm absent. S-band distal section width ratio (width of S-band/width of cell r2+3, both measured perpendicular to costal margin at apex of vein R2+3) 1. Pterostigma ratio 4.3–5.6. Ratio of costa length between apices of Sc and R1/length between apices of R1 and R2+3 0.53–0.59. Vein R2+3 not sinuous; without accessory vein. Vein R4+5 distal to crossvein r-m more or less evenly curved or not strongly bowed medially. Vein M ratio (distance from bm-cu to r-m/distance from bm-cu to dm-cu) 0.67–0.74 (0.69–0.73). Cell bcu posteroapical lobe shorter than vein A1+Cu2. Costa in male with setulae on anterior margin between crossvein h and apex of vein R1 similar to other setulae. Crossvein dm-cu orientation with anterior end more distal than posterior end.

Abdomen. Abdomen ovate or parallel-sided, syntergite 1+2 gradually broadening or parallel-sided. Abdominal tergite without brown markings. Epandrium posterodorsal margin evenly rounded. Lateral surstylus in posterior view without basolateral lobe. Lateral surstylus in posterior view short, rounded apically. Lateral surstylus in posterior view not boot-shaped. Phallus length 6.7–7.4 mm; ratio (phallus length/mesonotum length) 1.7–2.33. Glans present; without spinules. Oviscape straight; length 4.95–6.3 mm (4.99–6.28); length ratio (oviscape length/mesonotum length) 1.4–1.6 (1.40–1.59). Eversible membrane with dorsobasal denticles all sclerotized, in continuous triangular to semicircular or suboval pattern. Aculeus length 5.25–6.2 mm (5.27–6.18). Aculeus in ventral view more or less parallel-sided except extreme base. Aculeus tip length 0.55–0.7 mm (0.58–0.66); width 0.16–0.18 mm; lateral margins not curved dorsally; gradually tapering, blade-like, with flattened cross-section, or slender, needle-like, with circular cross-section; not flared outward at or proximal to base; with 2 V-shaped ridges, 1 dorsal and 1 ventral; without elongate dorsolateral depressions apically; not serrate; serrated part 0 times length of tip. Spermathecae sclerotized; ovoid. Egg without lobe (Figueiredo et al. 2011).


Other names for this species: Anastrepha latifasciata Hering, Anastrepha schineri Hendel. Sex of recorded specimens: male and female. Species group: grandis group.

Biology and economic significance

This species is a pest of the fruits of various native and introduced species of Cucurbitaceae in many areas of South America. It is considered a pest of quarantine significance by USDA-APHIS-PPQ, and has received considerable attention in regard to the extent to which it attacks melons (Cucumis melo L.), grown commercially in a number of South and Central American countries (Harper 1987, Silva & Malavasi 1993a). Several species of Cucurbita, including C. pepo L., are more common hosts, and there are also records of A. grandis attacking watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai), cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), and calabash gourd (Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.). The only known hosts native to the Neotropics are Cucurbita moschata (Duchesne) Duchesne and C. maxima Duchesne. Fischer (1934) reared one specimen from a guava fruit (Psidium guajava L.), but considered it an abnormal record because the fruit came from a tree in the middle of a field planted with Cucurbita. Oakley (1950) reported Passiflora alata Curtis as a host, but the source of the record is unclear and this plant is a doubtful host. Records from Citrus also are doubtful. Refer to the Fruit Fly Databases for host plant information.

The main damage is caused by the larvae, which feed inside the fruit. Little has been published on control methods for this species. Malavasi et al. (1990) discussed trapping methods and attractants. Nascimento et al. (1988) and Silva & Malavasi (1993a, b, 1996) studied various biological parameters of A. grandis involving oviposition, mating, and duration of life stages. Females lay eggs in clutches of up to 110, and as in many other species of Anastrepha, after laying eggs in a fruit, the female marks its surface with a pheromone that deters oviposition by other females. There are three larval instars, all of which feed inside the fruit. When mature, the third instars tunnel out of the fruit to pupate in the soil. Silva & Malavasi (1996) found the development time to be 3–7 days for the egg, 13–28 days (mean 17.7 days) for the larvae (3 instars), and 14–23 days (mean 19.7 days) for the pupa. Silva & Malavasi (1993a) found larvae developing in melons to have a higher mortality rate than those in pumpkins.


• Habitus, female (dorsal). • Thorax (dorsal). • Wing. • Terminalia, male & female.


Fruit Fly Databases for host plant, distribution, and nomenclatural information. Google search.