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Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys


Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz

Anastrepha ethalea (Walker)


Body. Setae orange, or orange brown, or red brown.

Head. Frons without brown markings except ocellar tubercle. Occiput without brown marks. Orbital setae 2. Ocellar seta weak, small or absent. Gena without brown spot. Facial carina in profile concave or flat on dorsal 2/3. Face with ventral part gradually tapered laterally; without brown markings. Antenna not extended to ventral margin of face.

Thorax. Mesonotum length 3.4–3.8 mm (Stone 1942). Scutum mostly or entirely microtrichose. Postpronotal, presutural supra-alar, dorsocentral, intra-alar and scutellar setae well developed, subequal to or longer than scutellum length. Acrostichal seta well developed. Basal scutellar seta strong, longer than scutellum. Katepisternal seta weak, no larger than postocellar seta, or absent. Mesonotum yellow, or orange. Scutum with 2 (sublateral) pale postsutural vittae, or with 3 (both medial and sublateral) pale postsutural vittae; pale medial vitta with posterior end broadly quadrate; pale sublateral postsutural vitta extended posteriorly to intra-alar seta. Scutum posteriorly without brown or orange brown markings. Scutum without brown vittae. Scutellum entirely yellow or with dark markings only on extreme base of disk. Mesopleuron mostly yellow to orange, without brown markings. Subscutellum entirely yellow to orange. Mediotergite entirely yellow to orange. Femora entirely yellow to orange. Fore femur with posterodorsal and ventral rows of well developed setae.

Wings. Wing length 7.9–8.5 mm (Stone 1942). Wing pattern typical Anastrepha pattern (S-band complete or at most interrupted at crossvein r-m, C-band and at least proximal arm of V-band present). C-band broadly extending to vein M in cell br along cell bm; covering base of cell r2+3; yellow or orange area posterior to pterostigma broad, extending distally into cells r1 and r2+3 at least to level of midlength of pterostigma. C-band and S-band connected (along vein R4+5 and sometimes along vein R2+3, cell r1 with basomarginal hyaline spot). Basal hyaline area between C-band and S-band extended to vein R4+5. Cell r1 basomarginal hyaline spot triangular to quadrate. Cell r1 basomarginal hyaline spot apex aligned proximal to crossvein r-m. S-band extended anteriorly to vein R4+5 and covering all of crossvein r-m. Cell bm entirely hyaline or infuscated only along subapical fold. S-band base without extension in middle of cell cu1 to posterior wing margin; without extension in cell a1 to or almost to posterior margin. S-band middle section predominantly or entirely orange, often with brown margins. Subapical hyaline area in radial cells distal to r-m extending anteriorly to vein R2+3. S-band distal section without marginal hyaline band or spots in cell r2+3 or near apices of R2+3 or R4+5. S-band distally not extended to apex of vein M. V-band proximal arm as dark as apical half of S-band; extending more than 1/3 distance from apex of vein Cu1 to apex of vein A1+Cu2; not connected anteriorly to S-band, or connected anteriorly to S-band along vein R4+5 or in cell r2+3 (narrowly); not connected to S-band in cell dm. V-band distal arm complete; connected to proximal arm of V band. Vein R2+3 not sinuous; without accessory vein. Vein R4+5 distal to crossvein r-m more or less evenly curved or not strongly bowed medially. Cell bcu posteroapical lobe shorter than vein A1+Cu2. Costa in male with setulae on anterior margin between crossvein h and apex of vein R1 similar to other setulae.

Abdomen. Abdomen ovate or parallel-sided, syntergite 1+2 gradually broadening or parallel-sided. Abdominal tergite without brown markings. Phallus length 3.35–3.7 mm; ratio (phallus length/mesonotum length) 0.9–1.2. Glans present; without spinules. Oviscape straight; length 2.45–3.05 mm; length ratio (oviscape length/mesonotum length) 0.65–0.9. Eversible membrane with dorsobasal denticles all sclerotized, in continuous triangular to semicircular or suboval pattern. Eversible membrane with 50–70 denticles (long slender hooklike denticles in subtriangular pattern). Aculeus length 2.1–2.55 mm. Aculeus in ventral view more or less parallel-sided except extreme base. Aculeus tip length 0.25–0.4 mm; width 0.14–0.18 mm; lateral margins not curved dorsally; blunt, or gradually tapering, blade-like, with flattened cross-section, or triangular; without ridges or lobes; without elongate dorsolateral depressions apically; with medium sized serrations, or with large serrations; serrated part 1.1–1.3 times length of tip. Aculeus tip serrations not extending onto dorsal side basally. Aculeus tip with serrations separated by less than width of serration. Spermathecae sclerotized; ovoid.


Sex of recorded specimens: male and female. Species group: pseudoparallela group.

Biology and economic significance

This species is a pest of fruits of species of Passiflora (Passifloraceae). The main damage is caused by the larvae, which feed inside the fruit. Refer to the Fruit Fly Databases for host plant information.


• Wings. • Terminalia, female (eversible membrane). • Terminalia, female (aculei).


Fruit Fly Databases for host plant, distribution, and nomenclatural information. Google search.