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Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys


Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz

Anastrepha daciformis Bezzi


Body. Setae orange, or orange brown, or red brown.

Head. Frons with brown band or mark including ocellar tubercle and extending to eye margin (broadest along eye margin and extended anteriorly beyond level of orbital seta). Anterior or single orbital seta at margin of brown band, or within brown band. Occiput with single broad brown area on medial and lateral sclerites (medial sclerite with brown areas connected on dorsal half but ventral to postocellar setae, usually yellow ventromedially). Frontal setae 2–4. Orbital setae 1. Ocellar seta weak, small or absent. Gena with brown spot below eye. Facial carina in profile concave or flat on dorsal 2/3. Face with ventral part gradually tapered laterally; without brown markings. Antenna extended to or beyond ventral margin of face.

Thorax. Mesonotum length 2.5–3 mm (2.58–2.89, n=13). Scutum mostly or entirely microtrichose (except medial presutural bare area). Scutellum disc entirely microtrichose. Postpronotal, presutural supra-alar, dorsocentral, intra-alar and scutellar setae well developed, subequal to or longer than scutellum length; postpronotal seta on posterior half of postpronotal lobe. Acrostichal seta well developed. Basal scutellar seta strong, longer than scutellum. Mesonotum dark orange, or orange brown, or medium brown; with presutural lateral pale vitta on lateral margin of scutum and posterior part of notopleuron (including posterior corner). Scutum presutural dorsocentral pale vitta present but separated anteriorly from pale area of postpronotal lobe; with 3 (both medial and sublateral) pale postsutural vittae; pale medial vitta with posterior end triangular, or with posterior end bilobed; pale sublateral postsutural vitta extended posteriorly to intra-alar seta. Scutum posteriorly without brown or orange brown markings (scutum predominantly brown). Scutum without brown vittae. Scutellum with at least basal third of sides and disk brown or orange, distinctly darker than apex. Propleuron at least partly dark orange or brown similar to darker area on anepisternum. Mesopleuron mostly dark orange to brown. Subscutellum entirely brown to dark brown. Mediotergite entirely brown to dark brown. Femora entirely yellow to orange, or at least one femur partly to entirely brown. Fore femur with posterodorsal and ventral rows of well developed setae.

Wings. Wing pattern with basal half of S-band reduced to streak in cubital cells, costal band continuous to wing apex, proximal arm of V-band variable. Cell c mostly or entirely infuscated to subhyaline, or paler posteriorly, without distinct subapical hyaline area. C-band not extending to vein M in cell br adjacent to cell bm; not covering base of cell r2+3; yellow or orange area posterior to pterostigma filling all of band in cells r1 and r2+3. Cell bm entirely hyaline or infuscated only along subapical fold. S-band base without extension in cell a1 to or almost to posterior margin. Cubital streak (isolated base of S-band) covering at most anterior 2/3 of cell bcu, posterior third or more of bcu hyaline or faintly infuscated. Cubital streak (isolated base of S-band) extending at most slightly beyond bm-cu. Subapical hyaline area in radial cells distal to r-m extending anteriorly to vein R2+3. S-band distal section without marginal hyaline band or spots in cell r2+3 or near apices of R2+3 or R4+5. S-band distally extended to apex of vein M, or not extended to apex of vein M. V-band proximal arm as dark as apical half of S-band (extended only to or slightly anterior to vein M); not connected anteriorly to S-band. V-band distal arm absent. Pterostigma ratio 4.4–5.5. Ratio of costa length between apices of Sc and R1/length between apices of R1 and R2+3 0.62–0.69. Vein R2+3 not sinuous; without accessory vein. Vein R4+5 distal to crossvein r-m more or less evenly curved or not strongly bowed medially. Vein M ratio (distance from bm-cu to r-m/distance from bm-cu to dm-cu) 0.59–0.68 (0.60–0.67). Cell bcu posteroapical lobe shorter than vein A1+Cu2. Costa in male with setulae on anterior margin between crossvein h and apex of vein R1 similar to other setulae. Crossvein dm-cu orientation with anterior end more distal than posterior end.

Abdomen. Abdomen ovate or parallel-sided, syntergite 1+2 gradually broadening or parallel-sided. Abdominal tergite with brown markings. Abdominal tergites at least with syntergite 1+2 with dark brown band. Epandrium posterodorsal margin evenly rounded. Lateral surstylus in posterior view very short, barely extended beyond prensisetae, rounded apically. Lateral surstylus in posterior view not boot-shaped. Lateral surstylus in lateral view short, apex blunt. Phallus length 0.1–0.3 mm; ratio (phallus length/mesonotum length) 0.02–0.15. Glans absent. Proctiger lateral and ventral sclerotized areas connected, lateral areas separate dorsally. Oviscape straight; length 2.1–2.75 mm (2.12–2.70, n=13); length ratio (oviscape length/mesonotum length) 0.75–1 (0.75–0.98, n=13). Eversible membrane with dorsobasal denticles mostly small and weak, apical row very large, stout, strongly sclerotized, and divided medially. Aculeus length 1.7–2.3 mm (1.79–2.2). Aculeus in ventral view more or less parallel-sided except extreme base. Aculeus tip length 0.1–0.16 mm; width 0.02–0.03 mm; lateral margins not curved dorsally; slender, needle-like, with circular cross-section; not flared outward at or proximal to base; without ridges or lobes; without elongate dorsolateral depressions apically; with minute serration, visible only with compound microscope, or with fine serrations; serrated part 0.15–0.3 times length of tip. Aculeus tip with serrations separated by less than width of serration. Spermathecae membranous; ovoid.


Sex of recorded specimens: male and female. Species group: daciformis group.

Biology and economic significance

This species has been reported to attack fruits of several economically important plants, but these records are doubtful. It probably attacks fruits of species of Sapotaceae like other species of the daciformis species group. Refer to the Fruit Fly Databases for host plant information.


• Habitus, female (dorsal). • Head (lateral). • Thorax (lateral). • Abdomen, female (dorsal). • Wings. • Terminalia, male & female.


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