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Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys


Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz

Anastrepha cordata Aldrich


Body. Setae dark red brown, or dark brown to black.

Head. Frons with brown band or mark including ocellar tubercle and extending to eye margin (mark U-shaped, narrow, connected only to posterior side of mark on ocellar tubercle). Occiput with brown marks only on medial sclerite. Medial occipital sclerite with only medial brown vitta or spot (spot usually connected to brown mark on frons and vertex to form V-shaped mark). Frontal setae 3–4. Orbital setae 2. Ocellar seta weak, small or absent. Gena without brown spot. Facial carina in profile concave or flat on dorsal 2/3. Face with ventral part gradually tapered laterally; without brown markings. Antenna not extended to ventral margin of face.

Thorax. Mesonotum length 2.2–3.3 mm (2.26–3.21, n=11). Postpronotal lobe and notopleuron specimens are debris covered and vestiture is difficult to see, at least notopleuron appears to be nonmicrotrichose. Scutum nonmicrotrichose. Scutellum disc entirely microtrichose. Postpronotal, presutural supra-alar, dorsocentral, intra-alar and scutellar setae well developed, subequal to or longer than scutellum length; postpronotal seta on posterior half of postpronotal lobe. Acrostichal seta absent (usually), or well developed. Basal scutellar seta strong, longer than scutellum. Katepisternal seta weak, no larger than postocellar seta, or absent. Mesonotum yellow, or orange. Scutum presutural dorsocentral pale vitta absent. Scutum posteriorly with brown or orange brown band or other transverse marking or larger posteromedial mark. Scutum posteriorly with large U-shaped mark including posterior band and vittae; scutal posterior brown band extended laterally to include intra-alar seta; with 2–3 pairs of brown vittae (broad presutural sublateral, submedial from anterior margin to beyond transverse suture, and postsutural sublateral connected to posterior band to form U-shaped mark). Submedial scutal vittae separated from posteromedial brown mark. Scutellum entirely yellow or with dark markings only on extreme base of disk, or with base of disk brown, extending to or beyond level of basal seta. Mesopleuron mostly yellow to orange, without brown markings. Subscutellum entirely brown to dark brown, or yellow to red brown medially, dark brown laterally. Mediotergite entirely brown to dark brown, or yellow to red brown medially, dark brown laterally.

Wings. Wing length 6.5–9.1 mm (6.57–7.93, n=9; up to 9.04 in Venezuela according to Caraballo). Wing pattern typical Anastrepha pattern (S-band complete or at most interrupted at crossvein r-m, C-band and at least proximal arm of V-band present). C-band broadly extending to vein M in cell br along cell bm; covering base of cell r2+3; yellow or orange area posterior to pterostigma broad, extending distally into cells r1 and r2+3 at least to level of midlength of pterostigma. C-band and S-band connected (broadly along vein R4+5, cell r1 with basomarginal hyaline spot (in specimens from Belize, Guatemala and Mexico)), or connected along costal margin (and vein R4+5, cell r1 with 1–2 small diffuse hyaline spots or entirely infuscated (in specimens from Costa Rica, Panamá and Venezuela)). Basal hyaline area between C-band and S-band extended to vein R4+5, or extended into cell br but not reaching vein R4+5 (more elongate anteriorly, 0.5–1.0 times as long as distal colored area of cell). Cell r1 basomarginal hyaline spot triangular to quadrate, or irregular, diffuse. Cell r1 basomarginal hyaline spot apex aligned proximal to crossvein r-m. S-band extended anteriorly to vein R4+5 and covering all of crossvein r-m. Cell bm entirely hyaline or infuscated only along subapical fold. S-band posterior margin with weak incision in cell cu1, or with distinct incision in cell cu1. S-band base without extension in middle of cell cu1 to posterior wing margin; without extension in cell a1 to or almost to posterior margin. S-band middle section predominantly or entirely orange, often with brown margins. Subapical hyaline area in radial cells distal to r-m extending anteriorly to vein R2+3, or extending into cell r2+3 but not reaching vein R2+3. S-band distal section without marginal hyaline band or spots in cell r2+3 or near apices of R2+3 or R4+5. S-band distally not extended to apex of vein M. V-band proximal arm extremely broad (as wide as length of dm-cu) and dark brown, much darker than C-band and S-band; extending more than 1/3 distance from apex of vein Cu1 to apex of vein A1+Cu2; connected anteriorly to S-band along vein R4+5 or in cell r2+3 (connected narrowly to moderately broadly); not connected to S-band in cell dm. V-band distal arm complete; connected to proximal arm of V band. S-band distal section width ratio (width of S-band/width of cell r2+3, both measured perpendicular to costal margin at apex of vein R2+3) 0.65–0.85 (0.71–0.79, n=5). Area surrounding apex of lobe of cell bcu with microtrichia similar in density to area anterdistal to it along vein Cu1. Cell c: pterostigma ratio (cell c length/pterostigma length) 0.98–1.14, n=6. Vein R1 ratio (distance from wing base to apex of R1/wing length) 0.54–0.57, n=6. Vein R2+3 not sinuous; without accessory vein. Vein R4+5 distal to crossvein r-m more or less evenly curved or not strongly bowed medially. Vein M ratio (distance from bm-cu to r-m/distance from bm-cu to dm-cu) 0.52–0.65 (0.53–0.64, n=11). Vein M curvature ratio (width of cell r4+5 at apex/width at level of dm-cu) 1.05–1.3 (1.09–1.27, n=6). Cell bcu ratio (length/anterior margin length along vein Cu) 1.38–1.46, n=5. Cell bcu posteroapical lobe shorter than vein A1+Cu2. Crossvein dm-cu orientation with anterior end more distal than posterior end.

Abdomen. Abdomen ovate or parallel-sided, syntergite 1+2 gradually broadening or parallel-sided. Abdominal tergite with brown markings. Abdominal tergites at least with syntergite 1+2 with dark brown band (syntergite 1+2 and tergites 3 and 4 with broad brown bands); evenly microtrichose. Epandrium posterodorsal margin evenly rounded. Phallus length 7.5–10 mm (8.14–9.58, n=4); ratio (phallus length/mesonotum length) 3–3.6 (3.08–3.51, n=4). Glans present; without spinules. Proctiger lateral and ventral sclerotized areas connected, lateral areas connected dorsally. Oviscape at least apex brown; straight; length 4.6–7.5 mm (4.69–7.11, n=8; up to 7.47 in Venezuela according to Caraballo 1981); length ratio (oviscape length/mesonotum length) 1.7–2.45 (1.72–2.42, n=8); spiracle ratio (distance from base to spiracle/oviscape length) 0.17–0.22, n=2; spiracle ratio to mesonotum length (distance from base to spiracle/mesonotum length) 0.37–0.41 (n=2). Eversible membrane with dorsobasal denticles all sclerotized, in continuous triangular to semicircular or suboval pattern, or with gap of membranous or no denticles separating apical row(s) from smaller basal denticles. Eversible membrane with 35–55 denticles (long, slender, hooklike dorsobasal denticles in 3–4 irregular transverse rows, separated from minute basal denticles by row of smaller, weakly sclerotized denticles). Aculeus length 4.2–7 mm (4.79–6.40, n=4; lower range estimated for Mexican female; up to 7.0 in Venezuela according to Caraballo 1981). Aculeus length/oviscape length 0.88–0.94, n=3. Aculeus in ventral view more or less parallel-sided except extreme base. Aculeus in lateral view straight or ventrally curved. Aculeus tip length 0.09–0.18 mm (0.10–0.17, n=4); width 0.05–0.07 mm (0.055–0.065, n=2); length/width in ventral view 2.00–2.46, n=2; depth (width in lateral view)/width (in ventral view) 0.91–1.00, n=2; lateral margins not curved dorsally; not flared outward at or proximal to base; without ridges or lobes; without elongate dorsolateral depressions apically; not serrate; serrated part 0 times length of tip. Egg without lobe.


Data source: Stone 1942, Norrbom & Korytkowski 2008. Sex of recorded specimens: male and female. Species group: robusta group, cryptostrepha clade.

Biology and economic significance

This species is not considered economically important. Refer to the Fruit Fly Databases for host plant information.


• Habitus, female (dorsal). • Wings. • Terminalia, female, eversible membrane. • Terminalia, female, aculeus. • Egg (SEM).


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