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Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys


Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz

Anastrepha connexa Lima


Body. Setae dark red brown, or dark brown to black.

Thorax. Mesonotum yellow, or orange. Scutum posteriorly without brown or orange brown markings (presumed, not mentioned in description). Scutum without brown vittae (presumed, not mentioned in description). Scutellum entirely yellow or with dark markings only on extreme base of disk (presumed, not mentioned in description). Mesopleuron mostly yellow to orange, without brown markings. Subscutellum entirely yellow to orange. Mediotergite entirely yellow to orange.

Wings. Wing length 9–11 mm (10, Lima 1934). Wing pattern typical Anastrepha pattern (S-band complete or at most interrupted at crossvein r-m, C-band and at least proximal arm of V-band present). Cell c mostly or entirely infuscated to subhyaline, or paler posteriorly, without distinct subapical hyaline area. C-band broadly extending to vein M in cell br along cell bm; covering base of cell r2+3; yellow or orange area posterior to pterostigma broad, extending distally into cells r1 and r2+3 at least to level of midlength of pterostigma. C-band and S-band connected (along vein R4+5, cell r1 with basomarginal hyaline spot). Basal hyaline area between C-band and S-band extended to vein R4+5. Cell r1 basomarginal hyaline spot triangular to quadrate. Cell r1 basomarginal hyaline spot apex aligned proximal to crossvein r-m. S-band extended anteriorly to vein R4+5 and covering all of crossvein r-m. Cell bm entirely hyaline or infuscated only along subapical fold. S-band posterior margin with distinct incision in cell cu1. S-band base without extension in middle of cell cu1 to posterior wing margin; without extension in cell a1 to or almost to posterior margin. S-band middle section predominantly or entirely orange, often with brown margins. Subapical hyaline area in radial cells distal to r-m extending anteriorly into cell r1, or extending anteriorly to vein R2+3. S-band distal section without marginal hyaline band or spots in cell r2+3 or near apices of R2+3 or R4+5. S-band distally not extended to apex of vein M. V-band proximal arm as dark as apical half of S-band; extending more than 1/3 distance from apex of vein Cu1 to apex of vein A1+Cu2; connected anteriorly to S-band along vein R4+5 or in cell r2+3; not connected to S-band in cell dm. V-band distal arm complete; connected to proximal arm of V band. Apex of V-band not extended from vein R4+5 to vein M, hyaline area present between band and vein M. S-band distal section width ratio (width of S-band/width of cell r2+3, both measured perpendicular to costal margin at apex of vein R2+3) 0.4–0.6 (0.5 in Lima 1934, fig. 29). Area surrounding apex of lobe of cell bcu with large oval area of very dense microtrichia (needs confirmation). Cell c: pterostigma ratio (cell c length/pterostigma length) 1–1.1 (1.05 in Lima 1934, fig. 29). Vein R1 ratio (distance from wing base to apex of R1/wing length) 0.58 in Lima 1934, fig. 29. Vein R2+3 not sinuous; without accessory vein. Vein R4+5 distal to crossvein r-m more or less evenly curved or not strongly bowed medially. Vein M ratio (distance from bm-cu to r-m/distance from bm-cu to dm-cu) 0.67–0.71 (0.69 in Lima 1934, fig. 29). Vein M curvature ratio (width of cell r4+5 at apex/width at level of dm-cu) 0.75–1 (0.89 in Lima 1934, fig. 29). Costa in male with setulae on anterior margin between crossvein h and apex of vein R1 similar to other setulae. Crossvein dm-cu orientation with anterior end more distal than posterior end.

Abdomen. Lateral surstylus in posterior view without basolateral lobe. Lateral surstylus in posterior view not boot-shaped. Surstylus in posterior view with lateral margin convex. Surstylus in posterior view with mesal margin convex. Phallus length 3.8–5 mm (4.4, Lima 1934).


Data recording inadequate. Sex of recorded specimens: male. Species group: benjamini group.

Biology and economic significance

This species is not considered economically important. Refer to the Fruit Fly Databases for host plant information.


• Terminalia, male (Lima 1934, fig. 28).


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