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Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys


Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz

Anastrepha bezzii Lima


Body. Setae orange, or dark red brown.

Head. Frons without brown markings except ocellar tubercle. Occiput without brown marks. Frontal setae 2–4. Orbital setae 1, or 2 (rarely; 1 of 38 specimens). Ocellar seta weak, small or absent. Gena without brown spot. Facial carina in profile concave or flat on dorsal 2/3. Face with ventral part gradually tapered laterally; without brown markings. Antenna not extended to ventral margin of face.

Thorax. Mesonotum length 3.66–5 mm. Postpronotal lobe and notopleuron entirely microtrichose. Scutum mostly or entirely microtrichose. Scutellum disc entirely microtrichose. Postpronotal, presutural supra-alar, dorsocentral, intra-alar and scutellar setae well developed, subequal to or longer than scutellum length; postpronotal seta on posterior half of postpronotal lobe. Acrostichal seta well developed. Basal scutellar seta strong, longer than scutellum. Katepisternal seta weak, no larger than postocellar seta, or absent. Mesonotum yellow, or orange. Scutum presutural dorsocentral pale vitta absent, or present and connected anteriorly with pale area of postpronotal lobe; with 3 (both medial and sublateral) pale postsutural vittae, or with 5 (medial, dorsocentral, and sublateral) pale postsutural vittae; pale medial vitta with posterior end ovoid, or with posterior end broadly quadrate; pale sublateral postsutural vitta extended posteriorly to intra-alar seta. Scutum posteriorly without brown or orange brown markings. Scutum without brown vittae. Scutellum entirely yellow or with dark markings only on extreme base of disk. Mesopleuron mostly yellow to orange, without brown markings. Subscutellum entirely yellow to orange. Mediotergite entirely yellow to orange. Femora entirely yellow to orange. Fore femur with posterodorsal and ventral rows of well developed setae.

Wings. Wing length 8.39–10.29 mm. Wing pattern typical Anastrepha pattern (S-band complete or at most interrupted at crossvein r-m, C-band and at least proximal arm of V-band present). Cell c mostly or entirely infuscated to subhyaline, or paler posteriorly, without distinct subapical hyaline area. C-band broadly extending to vein M in cell br along cell bm. C-band and S-band narrowly connected along costal margin. Basal hyaline area between C-band and S-band extended anteriorly beyond vein R4+5. S-band extended anteriorly to vein R4+5 and covering all of crossvein r-m. Cell bm entirely hyaline or infuscated only along subapical fold. S-band base without extension in middle of cell cu1 to posterior wing margin; without extension in cell a1 to or almost to posterior margin. Subapical hyaline area in radial cells distal to r-m extending anteriorly to vein R2+3. S-band distal section without marginal hyaline band or spots in cell r2+3 or near apices of R2+3 or R4+5. S-band distally extended to apex of vein M. V-band proximal arm as dark as apical half of S-band; not connected anteriorly to S-band (faint anterior to vein M); not connected to S-band in cell dm. V-band distal arm absent. Pterostigma ratio 4.4–5.3. Ratio of costa length between apices of Sc and R1/length between apices of R1 and R2+3 0.5–0.55. Vein R2+3 not sinuous, or strongly sinuous; without accessory vein. Vein M ratio (distance from bm-cu to r-m/distance from bm-cu to dm-cu) 0.59–0.65 (0.60–0.64). Cell bcu posteroapical lobe shorter than vein A1+Cu2. Costa in male with setulae on anterior margin between crossvein h and apex of vein R1 similar to other setulae.

Abdomen. Abdomen ovate or parallel-sided, syntergite 1+2 gradually broadening or parallel-sided. Abdominal tergite without brown markings. Epandrium posterodorsal margin evenly rounded. Lateral surstylus in posterior view without basolateral lobe. Lateral surstylus in posterior view short, rounded apically. Lateral surstylus in posterior view not boot-shaped. Phallus length 9.71–12.1 mm; ratio (phallus length/mesonotum length) 2.55–2.85 (2.56–2.83). Glans present; without spinules. Oviscape straight; length 6.25–9.55 mm (6.28–9.55; as short as 5.56 mm in Venezuela (Caraballo 1981), as long as 12.5 mm in Brazil (Lima 1937)); length ratio (oviscape length/mesonotum length) 1.6–2.2 (1.63–2.16; possibly up to 2.63 in Brazil (Lima 1937)). Eversible membrane with dorsobasal denticles all sclerotized, relatively small, in very elongate pattern. Aculeus length 5.6–9.2 mm. Aculeus in ventral view more or less parallel-sided except extreme base. Aculeus tip length 0.25–0.35 mm; width 0.09–0.1 mm; gradually tapering, blade-like, with flattened cross-section; not flared outward at or proximal to base; without ridges or lobes; not serrate; serrated part 0 times length of tip. Spermathecae sclerotized; ovoid, or elongate.


Other names for this species: Anastrepha balloui Stone. Sex of recorded specimens: male and female. Species group: mucronota group.

Biology and economic significance

This species is not considered economically important. The only well confirmed host plants are Sterculia apetala (Jacq.) Karst. and S. chicha St. Hil., although Guagliumi (1966) also listed Terminalia catappa L. as a host. The latter record may be erroneously based on Stone's (1942) report that some of the types of A. balloui were collected "on" T. catappa, but Guagliumi's listing (p. 232) of two Opius species as "Parassita di Anastrepha balloui Stone s/ Terminalia" suggests that he might have seen reared specimens. Fernandez-Yepez (in Teran 1980) considered this record doubtful, and Caraballo (1981) was unable to confirm it. The larvae reared from S. chica in Brazil fed inside the seed rather than in the pulp of the fruit. Refer to the Fruit Fly Databases for host plant information.


• Habitus, female (dorsal). • Wing. • Terminalia, male & female.


Fruit Fly Databases for host plant, distribution, and nomenclatural information. Google search.