The vestiture, or hairlike projections of the cuticle, in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana include macrotrichia (setae or setulae), which have an alveolus (socket), and microtrichia, which do not have an alveolus. Microtrichia are usually extremely small and cannot be seen individually except with high powered microscopes or scanning electron microscopes. They occur in patterns so that some surface areas may appear duller or pruinose versus shiny areas that lack them. Microtrichial patterns are very difficult if not impossible to see in specimens in fluid. On dry specimens they are best observed with the surface held at an oblique angle to the light source. The abdominal tergites are the more or less rectangular dorsal sclerites of the abdominal segments. In Tephritidae there are five in the male and six in the female.