Microtrichia are hairlike projections of the cuticle that do not have an alveolus. They should not be confused with setae or setulae, which have an alveolus. Microtrichia are usually minute and cannot be seen individually except with high powered microscopes or scanning electron microscopes. They occur in patterns so that some surface areas may appear duller or pruinose versus shiny areas that lack them. The S-band extends obliquely from the base of cell cu1 across r-m, reaching the anterior wing margin in cell r1, then following the anterior margin to the wing apex. The V-band includes two arms which are frequently connected anteriorly to form an inverted V. The proximal arm covers crossvein dm-cu. The distal arm extends obliquely across cell r4+5 and the distal part of cell m. Cell dm is located in the approximate middle third of the wing between veins M and Cu1 and crossveins bm-cu and dm-cu. Cell cu1 is posterior to vein Cu1 distal to cell bcu.