The mesonotum is the dorsum of the mesothorax, which in flies is well developed and forms most of thorax. The mesonotum includes the scutum, notopleura, scutellum and postnotum. In Tephritidae, the thorax often has clear areas in the cuticle called xanthines. Their color may appear white or yellow, depending upon the underlying tissues and the state of preservation of the specimen. In Anastrepha and Toxotrypana, these areas may be difficult to distinguish, especially in dried specimens of predominantly yellow or orange species in which they are less contrasting. Dorsally these areas usually include the postpronotal lobe, most of the scutellum, a pair of sublateral vittae (stripes) from the transverse suture posteriorly, often an unpaired medial vitta, and sometimes additional vittae. A complete presutural lateral vitta extends from the scutum posteromesal to the postpronotal lobe (usually connected with pale area on that sclerite) posterolaterally across the posterior part of the notopleuron. It may be reduced to a spot or spots on these areas.