The vestiture, or hairlike projections of the cuticle, include macrotrichia (setae or setulae), which have an alveolus (socket), and microtrichia, which do not have an alveolus. Setae are the large macrosetae (bristles) that occur at typical positions on the head and thorax in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana. The ketepisternum (= sternopleuron) is a triangular sclerite between the coxae of the fore- and midlegs and ventral to the anepisternum. Most species species of Tephritidae have a well developed katepisternal seta near the posterodorsal corner, but it is usually weak or absent in Anastrepha and Toxotrypana.