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Anastrepha and Toxotrypana:
descriptions, illustrations, and interactive keys


Allen L. Norrbom, Cheslavo A. Korytkowski, Roberto A. Zucchi, Keiko Uramoto, George L. Venable, Jerrett McCormick and Michael J. Dallwitz


Numerous individuals contributed to this project besides the team of authors. We thank them all for their help. We are particularly grateful to Terrence Walters and USDA, APHIS, CPHST, for providing financial support so that we could produce so many quality images. We also appreciate the support of M. Alma Solis, the Research Leader of the Systematic Entomology Laboratory during the development of this system.

Roy Larimer of Visionary Digital was instrumental in the imaging process, providing technical support and advice and assisting in the production of many images. Lucrecia Rodriguez produced and/or enhanced many of the images, and others were produced by SEL illustrators Taina Litwak, Linda Lawrence, or J. Marie Metz. Several colleagues, including Vicente Hernandez-Ortiz and J. O. Tigrero, kindly allowed us to use original or modified images from their publications as well as several unpublished images.

We also thank the curators and institutions, to numerous to list in totality, who arranged the loan of specimens that were examined or photographed in this project. We especially thank Norma Nolazco (SENASA, Peru), Gary Steck (Florida State Collection of Arthropods), Vicente Hernandez-Ortiz (Instituto de Ecologia, Xalapa), Manuel Zumbado (INBio, Costa Rica), Jorge Lopez (formerly APHIS, Guatemala), Wilford Hanson (Utah State University), Rugh Contreras Lichtenberg (Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna), Ian White (Natural History Museum, London), David Grimaldi (American Museum of Natural History), Paul Hanson (Universidad de Costa Rica), Chen Young (Carnegie Museum of Natural History), Phil Perkins (Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University), Laszlo Papp (Hungarian Natural History Museum), J.A. Rafael (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia), C.J. Rosales (Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay), H. Schumann (Museum fur Naturkunde der Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin), and Uwe Kallweit (Staatliches Museum fur Tierkunde, Dresden).

Finally, we thank our reviewers, Gary J. Steck, Don Thomas, [others to be listed] who tested the system and made numerous critical comments, suggestions and corrections.